APPENDIX A FACILITIES FOR TOMOGRAPHY - Oxford Scholarship Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering$

John Banhart

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199213245

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.001.0001

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(p.441) APPENDIX A FACILITIES FOR TOMOGRAPHY

(p.441) APPENDIX A FACILITIES FOR TOMOGRAPHY

Source:
Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

In this appendix some of the most important facilities for synchrotron X-ray, neutron and electron tomography are listed: Some of the parameters characterizing each facility are given, and some web sites providing further information are named.

A.1 Synchrotron tomography

Table A.2 provides information about synchrotron facilities around the world. In principle, tomography can be carried out at almost any facility. Therefore only the beamlines are included where 3D imaging plays an important role and is in the centre of the activity. We omit storage rings exclusively providing soft X-rays since the use of these in materials research is quite limited.

Table A.3 shows a selection of beamlines located at the synchrotron radiation facilities of Tab. A.2. Again, just a selection is given as large storage rings such as the APS have numerous beamlines where tomography can be performed. The energy ranges specified should be treated with care. It is the range given by the beamline manuals and represents the extreme limits given by the source. In most cases the tomography experiments will be carried out in a much narrower energy range since the beam intensity is much higher there and the detection systems are optimised to a fairly narrow energy range. Moreover, absorption by air requires evacuated flight tubes for very low energies that might not be available. To illustrate this, we quote the description of beamline ID19 at ESRF: ‘The beamline can work in the energy range 6 to 100 keV, but most of the experiments are performed in the 10–35 keV range’.

A.2 Neutron tomography

Two tables provide information about facilities for neutron tomography in different countries. Most facilities are constantly improving their instrumentation and therefore data might change.

Table A.4 contains a list of neutron sources that provide neutron tomography facilities to the external user who can apply for measurement time. Table A.5 lists the actual facilities. In some cases more than one facility is operated by an institute or different measurement positions have to be distinguished. Note that L/D can be simply varied by changing the collimation conditions and that the examples shown just reflect one condition chosen. The flux at the sample site depends on L/D and is specified for the given L/D ratio. Comparing the flux of different facilities can be problematic since the conditions vary so much. The (p.442)

Table A.1. Manufacturers of Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM).

company

city, country

Ref. (all 2007)

FEI Company

Eindhoven, Netherlands

FEI

Hitachi High Technologies

Japan

Hitachi

JEOL Ltd.

Japan

JEOL

Carl Zeiss NTS

Oberkochen, Germany

ZEISS

values given therefore merely serve as a rough estimate of the relative strength of a tomography facility. Other relevant data includes Cd ratio, γ-radiation background, the filters used, etc., and a complete set of data is hard to find.

A.3 Electron tomography

Transmission electron microscopes equipped with tomography options are offered by various major manufacturers, including these listed in Tab. A.1. Basically, any transmission electron microscope can be used for tomography provided a suitable sample holder is available that allows for tilting by high angles and with high precision. However, state-of-the-art TEM tomography requires experimental options that are not a part of all microscopes, such as STEM, a high-angle annular dark-field detector for HAADF STEM or an energy filter for EFTEM tomography.

The models sold by JEOL that are suitable for electron tomography include the 2000 series of 200 kV microscopes. The JEM-2200FS, for example, has a field emission system and an in-column omega-type energy filter. It can be equipped with an optional HAADF STEM system for Z-contrast tomography. The 3000 series of 300 kV microscopes is equally suitable.

The ‘Tecnai’ family of TEMs offered by FEI are designed to offer imaging and analysis solutions for life sciences, materials sciences, nanotechnology, and the semiconductor and data-storage industries. The Tecnai G2 Series comprises about 20 different models. The Technai F20, a 200-kV TEM, is frequently and routinely used for electron tomography. The ‘Titan’ family of FEI, released in 2005, comprises 300-kV TEMs that are claimed to belong to the currently most powerful microscopes.

The Zeiss LIBRA 200 is a TEM featuring some valuable extras, such as an electron optics with Köhler illumination and an omega in-column energy filter. It is suitable for electron tomography in various modes including bright-field, energy-filtered and HAADF STEM tomography, if equipped appropriately.

It should be noted that the companies mentioned as manufacturers for transmission electron microscopes also provide focussed ion beam machines that can be used for 3D imaging as explained in Section 1.4.6. (p.443)

Table A.2. Some institutions providing facilities for synchrotron tomography.

facility

operating institution

city

country

ring energy

Ref. (all 2007)

ANKA

Ångströmquelle Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe

Germany

2.5

ANKA

APS

Advanced Photon Source

Argonne

USA

7

APS

BESSY

Berliner Elektronensynchrotron

Berlin

Germany

1.7

BESSY

DORIS III

Deutsches Elektronensynchroton

Hamburg

Germany

4.5

DESY

ESRF

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

Grenoble

France

6

ESRF

NSLS

National Synchrotron Light Source

Brookhaven

USA

2.5

NSLS

SLS

Swiss Light Source

Villigen

Switzerland

2.4

SLS

SPring-8

Synchrotron Ring 8 GeV

Hyogo

Japan

8

SPring8

SSLS

Singapore Synchrotron Light Source

Singapore

Singapore

0.7

SSLS

(p.444)

Table A.3. Synchrotron beamline descriptions.

facility

beamline

source

energy range (KeV)

method

remarks

ANKA

Topo-Tomo

BM

1.5–40

μCT,

Fluo

BM

1.5–33

XCFT

APS

2-BM-B

BM

3–33

μCT

5-BM-C

BM

10–42

μCT

13-BM-C

BM

7–70

μCT

focusing option: 10×30μm

BESSY

BAMLine

7T WLS

5–60

μCT, holoCT

DORIS III

BW2

W

4–25

μCT

W2-Har Wi

W

60-200

μCT

ESRF

ID11/2

U

40–100

3DXRD

ID15A

W, 4T WLS

40–300

μCT

ID19

U, W

6–00

μCT, holoCT, fast CT

min. pixel size 0.3 μm, SSD > 100m

ID21

U

0.2–8

scanning tomography

FZP, 1 μm spot size

2.5–8

XTM

ID22

U

6.5–18

XCFT, μCT

focusing option (KB,CRL): 3.5×1.5μm

NSLS

X2B

BM

8–35

μCT

X15A

BM

10–60

DEI

SLS

X04SA

W

5–40

μCT, XTM

SSD=35 m

X02DA

BM

8–45

μCT

SPring-8

BL20XU

U

8–113

μCT

BL20B2

BM

5–113

μCT

BL47XU

U

5–37

μCT,XTM

SSLS

PCI

BM

2–15

μCT

U: undulator, W: wiggler, BM: bending magnet, WLS: wave length shifter

SSD: source-detector distance

other abbreviations: see list of acronyms, page xxiii

(p.445)

Table A.4. Some institutions providing facilities for neutron tomography.

facility

operating institution

city, country

type of facility

Ref. (all 2007)

BER-2

Hahn-Meitner-Institut

Berlin, Germany

10 MW reactor

HMI

BNC

Atomic Energy Research Institute

Budapest, Hungary

10 MW reactor

KFKI

FRM-2

Technical University München

Garching, Germany

20 MW reactor

TUM

FRG1

Forschungszentrum Geesthacht

Geesthacht, Germany

5 MW reactor

GKSS

HANARO

Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute

Daejeon, South Korea

30 MW reactor

HANARO

ILL

Institute Laue-Langevin

Grenoble, France

56 MW reactor

ILL

JRR-3M

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

Tokaimura, Japan

20 MW reactor

JAERI

NCNR

National Institute of Standards

Gaithersburg, USA

20 MW reactor

NIST

Orphée

Laboratoire Léon Brillouin

Gif-sur-Yvette, France

14 MW reactor

LLB

SAFARI

Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa

Pelindaba, South Africa

20 MW reactor

SAFARI

SINQ

Paul Scherrer Institute

Villigen, Switzerland

spallation source

PSI

(p.446)

Table A.5. Neutron tomography beamline descriptions.

facility

beamline

neutrons

beam size [cm]

L/D

flux 1 × 106 s−1cm−2

BER-2

CONRAD1

cold

□3 × 12

70

200

CONRAD2

cold

○10

500

5.8

BNC

thermal

○15

170

100 / 6*

FRG1

GENRA-3

thermal

□45 × 45

300

1.4*

FRMv2

ANTARES

cold

□40 × 40

400

100

NECTAR

fast

□30 × 30

230

4.9

HANARO

NRF

thermal

○25

300

10

ILL

Neutrograph

thermal

○20

150

3000

JRRv3M

○30

175

150

NCNR

BT2 NIF

thermal

○26

400

59 / 10*

Orphée

Neutronographie

cold

□5 × 3

70

500

SAFARI

NRAD

thermal

○30

270

10

SINQ

NEUTRA

thermal

○40

550

3*

ICON

cold

○40

600

3.4

*) with filter

(p.447) A.4 References

References References

Bibliography references:

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ESRF (2007). European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. http://www.esrf.eu. [Online; accessed 20 June 2007].

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