A Tale of Two Nations: Spanish Nationalism before Democracy (1808–1977)
This chapter explores the development of Spanish national identity from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of Francoism. Spanish nationalism has been adopted by different political ideologies and used as a tool of social control by a variety of regimes. In the first three quarters of the 19th century, Spanish nationalism was used to consolidate liberal revolution. Between 1875 and 1930, Spanish nationalism became a counter-revolutionary tool. During the Second Republic, Spanish nationalism was used as an instrument to promote democracy and social reform. Francoism was a backlash against this democratic Spanish nationalism; the dictatorship used an authoritarian Spanish nationalism to halt democracy and socio-political reform while it attempted to carry out an economic modernization of the country.
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