Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Image to InterpretationAn Intelligent System to Aid Historians in Reading the Vindolanda Texts$

Melissa Terras

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199204557

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199204557.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 16 August 2018

(p.231) References

(p.231) References

Source:
Image to Interpretation
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Aalto, P. (1945). ‘Notes on Methods of Decipherment of Unknown Writings and Languages’, Studia Orientalia, Edidat Societas Orientalis Fennica, 11(4).

Adams, J. N. (1995). ‘The Language of the Vindolanda Writing Tablets: An Interim Report’, Journal of Roman Studies, 85: 86–134.

—— M. Janse, and S. Swain, eds. (2002). Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language, Contact and the Written Word (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Aiolli, F. (1999). ‘Sviluppo di un sistema basato sulla Distanza Tangente per l'Analisi Morfologica di Caratteri Paleografici’, Tesi di Laurea (masters thesis), Department of Computer Science, University of Pisa, Feb.

—— M. Simi, D. Sona, A. Sperduti, A. Starita, and G. Zaccagnini (1999). ‘SPI: A System for Paleographic Inspections’, Workshop on Intelligenza Artificiale per i Beni Ambientali (AI*IA), Notiziario AI*IA, 4 (Dec). http://sra.itc.it/people/sona/PAPERS/aiolli99spi.pdf (accessed 1 April 2005).

Aiken, L. R. (1971). Psychological Testing and Assessment (London: Allyn & Bacon).

Aitchison, J. (1998). The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics (London: Routledge).

Anderson, B. (1974). The Quantifier as Qualifier: Some Notes on Qualitative Elements in Quantitative Content Analysis (Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg).

André, J. (1981). L'Alimentation et la cuisine à Rome (Paris: Belles Lettres).

—— (1985). Les Noms de plantes dans la Rome antique (Paris: Belles Lettres).

—— (1991). Le Vocabulaire latin de l'anatomie (Paris: Belles Lettres).

Asher, R. E., ed. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (Oxford: Pergamon).

Bagnall, R. S. (1997). ‘Imaging of Papyri: A Strategic View’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 12(3): 153–4.

Bately, J., M. P. Brown, and J. Roberts, eds. (1993). A Palaeographer's View: The Selected Writings of Julian Brown (London: Harvey Miller Publishers).

Baum L. E. (1972). ‘An Inequality and Associated Maximization Technique in Statistical Estimation for Probabilistic Functions of a Markov Process’, Inequalities, 3: 1–8.

(p.232) Bearman, G. H., and S. Spiro (1996). ‘Archaeological Applications of Advanced Imaging Techniques’, Biblical Archaeologist, 59(1): 56–66.

—— S. J. Pfann, and S. Spiro (1998). ‘Imaging the Scrolls: Photographic and Direct Digital Acquisition’, in P. W. Flint and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers), i. 472–95.

Benton, J. F., A. R. Gillespie, and J. M. Soha (1979). ‘Digital Image‐Processing Applied to the Photography of Manuscripts, with Examples Drawn from the Pincus ms. of Arnald of Villanova’, Scriptorium, 33: 40–55.

Biber, D. (1983). ‘Representativeness in Corpus Design’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 8(4): 243–57.

—— (1990). ‘Methodological Issues Regarding Corpus‐Based Analysis of Linguistic Variation’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 5(4): 257–69.

Bidwell, P. T. (1985). The Roman Fort of Vindolanda at Chesterholm, Northumberland (London: Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England).

—— (1997). Roman Forts in Britain (Bath: English Heritage, The Bath Press).

Bingen, J., A. Bülow‐Jacobsen, W. E. H. Cockle, H. Cuvigny, F. Kayser, and W. Van Rengen (1997). Mons Claudianus, Ostraca Graeca et Latina II (O.Claud. 191–414 (DFIFAO XXXII); Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire).

Birley, E., R. Birley, and A. R. Birley (1993). The Early Wooden Forts: Reports on the Auxiliaries, the Writing Tablets, Inscriptions, Brands and Graffiti (Hexham: Roman Army Museum Publications for the Vindolanda Trust).

Birley, R. E. (1977). Vindolanda: A Roman Frontier Post on Hadrian's Wall (London: Thames & Hudson).

—— (1997). ‘The Vindolanda Bonfire’, Current Archaeology, 13(9): 348–57.

—— (1999). ‘Vindolanda IV: Fasc. IV’, Writing Materials (Greenhead, Carvoran, Northumberland: Roman Army Museum Publications).

Bischoff, B. (1990). Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages, tr. D. O. Croinin and D. Ganz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Booras, S. W., and D. M. Chabries (2001). ‘The Herculaneum Scrolls’, Proceedings of Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (PICS‐01) (Montreal and Quebec: Society for Imaging Science and Technology), 215–18

Boose, J. H. (1990). ‘Uses of Repertory Grid‐Centered Knowledge Acquisition Tools for Knowledge‐Based Systems’, in J. Boose and B. Gaines, Foundations of Knowledge Acquisition (London: Academic Press), 61–83.

—— and B. Gaines, eds. (1990). The Foundation of Knowledge Acquisition (London: Academic Press).

(p.233) Boswinkel, E., and P. W. Pestman, eds. (1978). Textes grecs, demotiques et bilingues (Papyrologica Lugduno‐Batava, 19; Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers).

Bowman, A. K. (1994) Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier (London: British Museum Press).

—— (1999). ‘The Vindolanda Writing‐Tablets 1991–4’, Atti del XI Congresso Internazionale di Epigrafia Greca e Latina, Roma 18–24 Settembre 1997 (Rome: Edizion: Quasar), i. 545–51.

—— (2003). Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier: Vindolanda and its People, 2nd edn. (London: British Museum Press).

—— and M. Brady, eds. (2005). Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World (Oxford: Oxford University Press for British Academy).

—— and J. D. Thomas (1974). The Vindolanda Writing Tablets (Newcastle upon Tyne: Graham).

—— and —— (1983). Vindolanda: The Latin Writing Tablets (Tab. Vindol. I) (London: Society for Promotion of Roman Studies).

—— and —— (1994). The Vindolanda Writing‐Tablets (Tab. Vindol. II) (London: British Museum Press).

—— and —— (2003). The Vindolanda Writing‐Tablets (Tab. Vindol. III) (London: British Museum Press).

—— J. M. Brady, and R. S. O. Tomlin (2005). ‘Wooden Stylus Tablets from Roman Britain’, in A. K. Bowman and M. Brady (eds.), Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 7–14.

—— J. M. Brady, and R. S. O. Tomlin (1997). ‘Imaging Incised Documents’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 12(3): 169–76.

Boyle, L. E. (2001). Integral Palaeography (Turnhout: Brepolis).

Brady, M., X. Pan, M. Terras, and V. Schenk (2005). ‘Shadow Stereo, Image Filtering and Constraint Propagation’, in A. K. Bowman and M. Brady (eds.), Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 15–30.

Breeze, D. J., and B. Dobson (1976). Hadrian's Wall (London: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press)).

Brooks, R. A. (1986). ‘A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot’, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Journal of Robotics and Automation, RA‐2: 14–23.

Brown, M. S., and W. B. Seales (2001). 3D Imaging and Processing of Damaged Texts, Joint International Conference of the Association for Computers and the Humanities and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, New York University, 13–16 June. http://www.nyu.edu/its/humanities/ach_allc2001/papers/brown/ (accessed 27 Jan 2005).

(p.234) Burrus, C. S., R. A. Gopinath, and H. Guo (1997). Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transforms: A Primer (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall).

Carr, M., J. Durand, and S. Thomas (1994). Translation Theory and Practice: A Discourse (Salford: University of Salford).

Carr, T., and B. A. Levy, eds. (1990). Reading and its Development: Component Skills Approaches (London: Academic Press).

Casamassima, E., and E. Staraz (1977). ‘Varianti e cambio grafico nella scrittura dei papiri latini: note palaeografiche’, Scrittura e civiltà, 1: 9–110.

Cattel, J. M. (1886). ‘The Time Taken up by Cerebral Operations’, Mind, 2: 220–42.

Cencetti, G. (1950). Note Paleografiche sulla Scrittura dei Papiri Latini dal I al III Secolo D.C. (Memorie dell'Accademia delle scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna. Classe di scienze morali, V/1).

Chabries, D. M., and S. W. Booras (2001). ‘The Petra Scrolls’, Proceedings of Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference (PICS‐01) (Montreal and Quebec: Society for Imaging Science and Technology), 198–295.

—— and—— and G. H. Bearman (2003). ‘Imaging the Past: Recent Applications of Multispectral Imaging Technology to Deciphering Manuscripts’, Antiquity, 77: 359–72.

Charniak, E. (1993). Statistical Language Learning (Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press).

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton).

—— (1972). Language and Mind (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).

Ciula, A. (2004). ‘A Research Project: The Application of SPI Software to the Corpus of Manuscripts Held in Siena’, MA dissertation, Master of Arts in Applied Computing in the Humanities, King's College London.

Clanchy, M. T. (1993). From Memory to Written Record, England 1066–1307 (Oxford: Blackwell).

Coleman, R. G. G. (1993). ‘Vulgar Latin and Proto Romance: Minding the Gap’, Prudentia, 25(2): 1–14.

Connell, J. H., and M. Brady (1987). ‘Generating and Generalizing Models of Visual Objects’, Artificial Intelligence, 31(2): 159–83.

Connell, J. L., and L. Shafer (1989). Structured Rapid Prototyping: An Evolutionary Approach to Software Development (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Yourdon Press Computing Series).

Conway, R. S. (1923). An Introduction to Latin, Greek and English Etymology (London: John Murray).

Cordingley, E. (1989). ‘Knowledge Elicitation Techniques for Knowledge Based Systems’, in D. Diaper (ed.), Knowledge Elicitation: Principles, Techniques and Applications (Chichester: Ellis Horwood), 90–103.

(p.235) Coulmas, F. (1989). The Writing Systems of the World (Oxford: Blackwell).

Côté, M., E. Lecolinet, M. Cheriet, and C. Y. Suen. (1998). ‘Automatic Reading of Cursive Scripts Using a Reading Model and Perceptual Concepts: The PERCEPTO System’, International Journal of Document Analysis and Recognition, 1(1): 3–17.

Crain, S., and M. Steedman (1985). ‘On Not Being Led up the Garden Path: The Use of Context by the Psychological Syntax Processor’, in D. Dowty, L. Karttunen, and A. M. Zwicky (eds.), Natural Language Parsing: Psycholinguistic, Computational and Theoretical Perspectives (Studies in Natural Language Processing; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 320–58.

Dahl, R. (1997). The Great Automatic Grammatizator and Other Stories (London: Penguin Books).

Danks, J. H., and J. Griffin (1997). ‘Reading and Translation: A Psycholinguistic Perspective’, in J. H. Danks, G. M. Shreve, S. B. Fountain, and M. K. McBeath (eds.), Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications), 161–75.

—— G. M. Shreve, S. B Fountain, and M. K. McBeath, eds. (1997). Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications).

De Carteret, C., and R. Vidgen (1995). Data Modelling for Information Systems (London: Pitman).

De Cervantes, M. (1615). Don Quixote, tr. E. Grossman, 2004 (London: Secker & Walburg).

De Groot, A. M. B. (1997). ‘The Cognitive Study of Translation and Interpretation’, in J. H. Danks, G. M. Shreve, S. B. Fountain, and M. K. McBeath (eds.), Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications).

—— and C. Barry (1994). The Multilingual Community: Bilingualism (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).

Dermott, J. (1988). ‘Preliminary Steps toward a Taxonomy of Problem Solving Methods’, in S. Marcus (ed.), Automating Knowledge Acquisition for Expert Systems (Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers), 225–56.

Diaper, D. (1989). Knowledge Elicitation: Principles, Techniques and Applications (Chichester: Ellis Horwood).

Dodel, J. P., and R. Shinghal (1995). ‘Symbolic/Neuronal Recognition of Cursive Amounts on Bank Cheques’, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Montreal, i. 15–18.

Duncker, K. (1926). ‘A Qualitative (Experimental and Theoretical) Study of Productive Thinking (Solving of Comprehensible Problems)’, Pedagogical Seminar, 33: 642–708.

(p.236) Ellegard, A. (1963). English, Latin, and Morphemic Analysis (Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg).

Ellis, R., and G. Humphreys (1999). Connectionist Psychology: A Text with Readings (Hove: Psychology Press).

Ericsson, K. A., and H. A. Simon (1993). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).

Erman, L. D., F. Hayes‐Roth., V. R. Lesser, and D. R. Reddy (1980). ‘The HEARSAY‐II Speech Understanding System: Integrating Knowledge to Resolve Uncertainty’, Computing Surveys, 12(2): 213–53.

Eysenck, M. W., and M. T. Keane (1997). Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook (Hove: Psychology Press).

Fahlman, S. E. (1973), ‘A Planning System for Robot Construction Tasks’, Technical Report 283, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Lab, http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/6918 (accessed 27 Jan 2005).

Feigenbaum, E. A. (1977). The Art of Artificial Intelligence: Themes and Case Studies in Knowledge Engineering (Stanford, Calif.: International Joint Conference of Artificial Intelligence, 5; 1977); 1014–29.

Fink, R. O. (1971). Roman Military Records on Papyrus (Philological Monographs of the American Philological Association, 26; Cleveland, Oh.: Case Western Reserve University Press).

Finney, J. T. (1999). ‘The Ancient Witnesses of the Epistle to the Hebrews: A Computer‐Assisted Analysis of the Papyrus and Uncial Manuscripts of Pros Ebraious’, D.Phil. thesis, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, http://alpha.reltech.org/TFinney/thesis/index.html (accessed 31 Jan 2005).

Forster, M. R. (1999). ‘The New Science of Simplicity’, in H. A. Keuzenkamp, M. McAleer, and A. Zellner (eds.), Simplicity, Inference and Econometric Modelling (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 83–117.

Francis, W. N., and H. Kucera (1979). Brown Corpus Manual (Providence, Brown University), http://helmer.aksis.uib.no/icame/brown/bcm.html (accessed 25 Feb 2005).

Franzosi, R. (1990). ‘Strategies for the Prevention, Detection and Correction of Measurement Error in Data Collected from Textual Sources’, Sociological Methods and Research, 18: 442–71.

—— (1997). ‘Labor Unrest in the Italian Service Sector: An Application of Semantic Grammars’, in C. W. Roberts (ed.), Text Analysis for the Social Sciences (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), 131–45.

Fu, K. S., and P. H. Swain (1969). ‘On Syntactic Pattern Recognition’, in J. T. Tou (ed.), Software Engineering, 2: 155–82.

Furneaux, S., and M. F. Land (1997). ‘The Role of Eye Movements during Music Reading’, Proceedings of the Third European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM) Conference (Uppsala: Uppsala University), 210–14.

(p.237) Gaiman, N. (2003). ‘In San Diego’, Neilgaiman.com Journal Entry, 17 July 2003, http://www.neilgaiman.com/journal/2003_07_13_archive.asp (accessed 3 June 2004).

Gaines, B. R., and M. L. G. Shaw (1997). WebGrid: Knowledge Modeling and Inference through the World Wide Web (Knowledge Science Institute, University of Calgary), http://repgrid.com/reports/KBS/KMD/(accessed 5 June 2002).

Gallo, I. (1986). Greek and Latin Papyrology (London: Institute of Classical Studies).

Gao, Q., and L. Ming (2000). ‘Applying MDL to Learning Best Model Granularity’, Artificial Intelligence, 121: 1–29.

Gaur, A. (1987). A History of Writing (London: British Library Publications).

Geman, S., and D. Geman (1984). ‘Stochastic Relaxation, Gibbs Distributions, and the Bayesian Restoration of Images’, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 6: 721–41.

Gibson, E. J., and H. L. Levin (1976). The Psychology of Reading (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

Gonzalez, R. C., and R. E. Woods (1993). Digital Image Processing (Reading, Mass.: Addison‐Wesley Publishing).

Goodman, K. S. (1967). ‘Reading: A Psycholinguistic Guessing Game’, Journal of the Reading Specialist, 6: 126–35.

Gough, P. B. (1972). ‘One Second of Reading’, in J. F. Kavanagh and I. G. Mattingly (eds.), Language by Ear and by Eye (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

—— and M. Cosky (1977). ‘One Second of Reading Again’, in N. J. Castellan, D. B. Pisoni, and G. R. Potts, Cognitive Theory (2) (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).

Gregory, R. L. (1994). Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Grenfell, B. P. (1918). ‘New Papyri from Oxyrhynchus’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 5(1): 18–23.

—— (1921). ‘The Present Position of Papyrology’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 6 (1–2): 1–21.

Hall, F. W. (1913). A Companion to Classical Texts (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Hammersley, J. M., and D. C. Handscomb (1964). Monte Carlo Methods (London: Chapman & Hall).

Hart‐Davis, R., ed. (1978), The Lyttelton Hart‐Davis Letters, i. (London: Murray).

(p.238) Healey, J. F. (1990). The Early Alphabet (London: British Library Publications).

Henderson, J. M., and A. Hollingworth (1998). ‘Eye Movements during Scene Viewing: An Overview’, in G. Underwood (ed.), Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception (Oxford: Elsevier), 269–93.

Herman, J. (2000). Vulgar Latin, tr. T. B. R. Wright (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press).

Hilton, O. (1959). ‘Characteristics of the Ball Point Pen and its Influence on Handwriting Identification’, Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 47: 606–13.

—— (1984). ‘Effects of Writing Instruments on Handwriting Details’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29: 80–6.

Hippisley, D. (2005) ‘Encoding the Vindolanda Tablets: An Investigation in Contextual Encoding using XML and the EpiDoc Standards’, MA dissertation, Masters in Electronic Communication and Publishing, University College London.

Hirst, G. (1987). Semantic Interpretation and the Resolution of Ambiguity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Hockey, S. (2000). Electronic Texts in the Humanities (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Hoey, M. (2001). Textual Interaction: An Introduction to Written Discourse Analysis (London: Routledge).

Hogaboam, T. W., and C. A. Perfetti (1975). ‘Lexical Ambiguity and Sentence Comprehension’, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 16(3): 265–74.

Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities (Reading, Mass.: Addison‐Wesley).

Hornby, P. A. (1977). Bilingualism, Psychological, Social and Educational Implications (New York: Academic Press).

Holy Bible, King James VI’s Version (1953). (Glasgow, Collins' Clear‐type Press).

Huhns, M. N., and M. P. Singh, eds. (1998). Readings in Agents (San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers).

Hunt, A. S. (1914). ‘Papyri and Papyrology’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1(2): 81–91.

—— (1922). ‘Twenty‐Five Years of Papyrology’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 8 (3–4): 121–8.

—— (1928). ‘Review Article: Greek Papyri in the Library of Cornell University’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 14 (1–2): 24–5.

—— (1930). ‘Papyrology’, Oxford Magazine (30 Oct.): 84–6.

(p.239) Illingworth, V., ed. (1996). The Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 4 edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Impedovo, S. (1993). Fundamentals in Handwriting Recogntion (NATO Advanced Study Workshop on Fundamentals in Handwriting Recognition; Château de Bonas, France: Springer‐Verlag).

Ireland, S. (1986). Roman Britain: A Sourcebook (London: Routledge).

Jameson, M. (2004). ‘Promises and Challenges of Digital Libraries and Document Image Analysis: A Humanist's Perspective’, Proceedings of the 2004 International Workshop on Document Image Analysis for Libraries, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/dial/2004/2088/00/2088toc.htm (accessed 4 May 2004).

Karssemeijer, N. (1992). ‘Stochastic Model for Automated Detection of Calcifications in Digital Mammograms’, Image and Vision Computing, 10 (6): 369–75.

Kelly, G. A. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs, (New York: W. W. Norton & Co.).

Kenny, A. (1982). The Computation of Style: An Introduction to Statistics for Students of Literature and Humanities (Oxford: Pergamon Press).

Kenyon, F. G. (1918). Greek Papyri and their Contribution to Classical Literature: A Paper Communicated to the Leeds Branch [of the Classical Association] at its Fourth Annual Meeting 26 January 1918 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Kiernan, K. S. (1991). ‘Digital Image Processing and the Beowulf Manuscript’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 6: 20–7.

Kiraly, D. C. (1997). ‘Think Aloud Protocols and the Construction of a Professional Translator Self‐Concept,’ in J. H. Danks, G. M. Shreve, S. B. Fountain, and M. K. McBeath (eds.), Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications), 137–60.

Kleve, K., E. S. Ore, and R. Jensen (1987). ‘Literalogy: On the Use of Computer Graphics and Photography in Papyrology’, Symbolae Osloenses, 62: 109–29.

Knox, K., R. Johnston, and R. L. Easton (1997). ‘Imaging the Dead Sea Scrolls’, Optics and Photonics News, 8(8): 30–4.

Kripperndorff, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology (London: Sage Publications).

Laddaga, R., and P. Robertson (1996). Yolambda Reference Manual (Haverhill, Mass.: Dynamic Object Language Labs, Inc.).

Lalou, É., ed. (1992). Les Tablettes à écrire de l'éAntiquité à l'époque moderne (Turnhout: Brepolis).

Lanterman, A., M. I. Miller, and D. L. Snyder (1998). ‘Minimum Description Length Understanding of Infrared Scenes’, Automatic Target Recognition VIII (Orlando, Fla.: SPIE Proc. 3371), 375–86.

(p.240) Lau, T. W. E., and Y. C. Ho (1997). ‘Universal Alignment Probabilities and Subset Selection for Ordinal Optimization’, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 93: 455–89.

Lawler, J. M., and H. A. Dry, eds. (1998). Using Computers in Linguistics: A Practical Guide (London: Routledge).

Leclerc, Y. G. (1989). ‘Constructing Simple Stable Descriptions for Image Partitioning’, International Journal of Computer Vision, 3(1): 73–102.

Levison, M. (1965). ‘The Siting of Fragments’, Computer Journal, 7: 275–7.

—— (1967). ‘The Computer in Literary Studies’, in A. D. Booth (ed.). Machine Translation (Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co.) 173–4.

—— (1999). ‘The Jigsaw Puzzle Problem Revisited’, Joint International Conference of the Association for Computers and the Humanities and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, Charlottesville, Va., ALLC.

Liversedge, S. P., K. B. Paterson, and M. J. Pickering (1998). ‘Eye Movements and Measures of Reading Time’, in G. Underwood (ed.), Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception (Oxford: Elsevier), 55–75.

Lundberg, M. J. (2002). ‘New Technologies: Reading Ancient Inscriptions in Virtual Light’, West Semitic Research Project, University of Southern California, http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/information/article.html (accessed 7 Sept 2002).

McClelland, J. L., and D. E. Rumelhart (1981). ‘An Interactive Activation Model of Context Effects in Letter Perception: Part 1. An Account of Basic Findings’, Psychological Review, 88: 375–407.

—— and—— (1986a). ‘A Distributed Model of Human Learning and Memory’, in J. L. McClelland and D. E. Rumelhart and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing, ii. Psychological and Biological Models (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

—— and—— (1986b), ‘The Programmable Blackboard Model of Reading’, in D.E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, i. Foundations (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

—— and—— and the PDP Research Group (1986). Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, ii. Psychological and Biological Models (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

McDermott, D. V., and G. L. Sussman (1973). ‘The Conniver Reference Manual’, Artificial Intelligence Memo 259 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab).

McGraw, K. L., and K. Harbison‐Briggs (1989). Knowledge Acquisition: Principles and Guidelines (London: Prentice‐Hall International Editions).

(p.241) McGraw, K. L., and C. R. Westphal, eds. (1990). Readings in Knowledge Acquisition: Current Practices and Trends (London: Ellis Horwood).

Mahoney, A. (2000). ‘Overview of Latin Syntax’, Perseus Project, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi‐bin/ptext?doc=1999.04.0022 (accessed 6 June 2004).

—— and J. Rydberg‐Cox (2001). ‘A Note on Scrabble in Latin’, Classical Outlook, 78(2): 58–9.

Mallon, J. (1952). Paléographie Romaine (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Antonio de Nebrija, de Filología).

Manguel, A. (1997). A History of Reading (London: Flamingo).

Marcus, S., ed. (1988). Automating Knowledge Acquisition for Expert Systems (Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Press).

Marichal, R. (1950). ‘L'Écriture latine du Ier au VIIIe siècle: Les sources’, Scriptorium, 4: 131–3.

—— (1955). ‘L'Écriture latine du Ier au VIIIe siècle: Les sources’, Scriptorium, 9: 129–30.

Masson, J. (1985). ‘Felt Tip Pen Writing’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 30: 172–7.

Mathyer, J. (1969). ‘Influence of Writing Instruments on Handwriting and Signatures’, Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 60: 102–12.

Millet, M. (1995). Roman Britain (Bath: English Heritage, The Bath Press).

Molton, N., X. Pan, M. Brady, A. K. Bowman, C. Crowther, and R. Tomlin (2003). ‘Visual Enhancement of Incised Text’, Pattern Recognition, 36: 1031–43.

Morik, K., S. Wrobel, J.‐U. Kietz, and W. Emde (1993). Knowledge Acquisition and Machine Learning: Theory, Methods and Applications (London: Academic Press).

Morwood, J., and M. Warman (1990). Our Greek and Latin Roots (Cambridge: Cambridge: University Press).

Munby, L., S. Hobbs, and A. Crosby; (2002). Reading Tudor and Stuart Handwriting, 2nd edn., alphabet drawn by P. Judge (Chichester: British Association for Local History).

Neal, R. M. (1993). ‘Probablistic Inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods’, Technical Report CRG‐TR‐93–1 (Toronto: Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto), http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼radford/review.abstract.html (accessed 20 Jan 2005).

Norvig, P. (1991). Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common LISP (San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann).

Oakhill, J., and A. Garnham (1988). Becoming a Skilled Reader (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).

(p.242) Ogden, J. A. (1969). ‘The Siting of Papyrus Fragments: An Experimental Application of Digital Computers’, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mathematics. Glasgow, University of Glasgow.

Oostdijk, N. (1988). ‘A Corpus Linguistic Approach to Linguistic Variation’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 3(1): 12–25.

Oxford English Dictionary (2005). Online: http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50170837/50170837se5?single=1&query_type=word&queryword=papyrology&first=1&max_to_show=10&hilite=50170837se5 (accessed 3 Feb 2005).

Pan, X., M. Brady, A. K. Bowman, C. Crowther, and R. S. O. Tomlin (2004). ‘Enhancement and Feature Extraction for Images of Incised and Ink Texts’, Image and Vision Computing, 22(6): 443–51.

Parisse, C. (1996). ‘Global Word Shape Processing in Off‐Line Recognition of Handwriting’, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 18(4): 460–4.

Parkes, M. B. (1991). Scribes, Scripts and Readers (London: Hambledon Press).

—— (1992). Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West (Aldershot: Scolar Press).

Pattie, T. S., and E. G. Turner (1974). The Written Word on Papyrus (London: British Museum Publications).

Pestman, P. W. (1990). The New Papyrological Primer, being the Fifth Edition of David and Van Groningen's Papyrological Primer (Leiden: Brill).

Plato (1986). Phaedrus, tr. C. J. Rowe (Warminster: Aris & Philips).

Plautus (1965). ‘Pseudolus’, The Pot of Gold and Other Plays, tr. E. Watling (Harmondsworth: Penguin).

Plunkett, K. (1995). ‘Connectionist Approaches to Language Acquisition’, in P. Fletcher and B. Macwhinney (eds.), The Handbook of Child Language (Oxford: Blackwell).

Popping, R. (2000). Computer Assisted Text Analysis (London: Sage Publications).

Prescott, A. (1997). ‘The Electronic Beowulf and Digital Restoration’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 12(3): 185–95.

Rabiner, L. R. (1989). ‘A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition’, Proceedings of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 77(2): 257–86.

Rayner, K. (1998). ‘Eye Movements in Reading and Information Processing: 20 Years of Research’, Psychology Bulletin, 124(3): 372–422.

Reichgelt, H., and N. Shadbolt (1992). ‘ProtoKEW: A Knowledge‐Based System for Knowledge Acquisition’, in D. Sleeman and N. Bernsen (eds.), Artificial Intelligence, vi. (Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum).

(p.243) Reiner, E. (1973). ‘How we Read Cuneiform Texts’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 25: 3–58.

Renner, T. (1994). ‘The Finds of Wooden Tablets from Campania and Dacia as Parallels to Archives of Documentary Papyri from Roman Egypt’, in A. Bülow‐Jacobsen (ed.), Proceedings of the 20th International Congress of Papyrologists, Copenhagen 23–29 Aug. 1992 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press).

Reynolds, L. D., and N. G. Wilson (1991). Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Rissanen, J. (1978). ‘Modeling by Shortest Data Description’, Automatica, 14: 465–71.

—— (1999). ‘Hypothesis Selection and Testing by the MDL Principle’, Computer Journal, 42(4): 260–9.

Rivero, D., R. Vidal, J. Dorado, J. R. Rabuñal, and A. Pazos (2003). ‘Restoration of Old Documents with Genetic Algorithms’, Proceedings of Applications of Evolutionary Computing: EvoWorkshops 2003, EvoBIO, EvoCOP, EvoIASP, EvoMUSART, EvoROB, and EvoSTIM, Essex, UK, 14–16 Apr. 2003. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2611/2003; Heidelbers: Springer‐Verlag, 432–43.

Robertson, P. (1999). A Corpus Based Approach to the Interpretation of Aerial Images, Proceedings of 7th International Congress on Image Processing and its Applications (IEE IPA99) (Manchester), ii. 527–31.

—— (2001). ‘A Self Adaptive Architecture for Image Understanding’, D.Phil thesis, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford.

—— and R. Laddaga (2002). ‘Principal Component Decomposition for Automatic Context Induction’, in N. Ishii (ed.), Artificial and Computational Intelligence: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference (Tokyo): 243–50.

—— and R. Laddaga (2004). ‘The GRAVA Self‐Adaptive Architecture; History; Design; Application; and Challenges’, 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS 2004 Workshops) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society), 298–303.

—— M. Terras, X. Pan, J. M. Brady, and A. K. Bowman (forthcoming). ‘Image to Interpretation: An MDL Agent Architecture to Read Ancient Roman Texts’, submitted.

Rumelhart, D. E., and J. L. McClelland (1982). ‘An Interactive Activation Model of Context Effects in Letter Perception: Part 2’, Psychological Review, 89: 60–94.

—— and—— and the PDP Research Group (1986). Parallel Distributed Processing, Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, i. Foundations. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

(p.244) Russell, S. J., and P. Norvig (1995). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice‐Hall International).

Saunders, L. (1999). ‘The Uses of Greek’, in W. Sieghart (ed.), The Forward Book of Poetry 1999 (London: Forward Publishing), 53–7.

Schenk, V. U. B. (2001). ‘Visual Identification of Fine Surface Incisions’, D.Phil. thesis, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University.

—— and M. Brady (2003). ‘Visual Identification of Fine Surface Incisions in Incised Roman Stylus Tablets’, ICAPR 2003, International Conference in Advances in Pattern Recognition (IEEE).

Seales, W. B., J. Griffioen, K. Kiernan, C. J. Yuan, and L. Cantara (2000). ‘The Digital Athenuem: New Technologies for Restoring and Preserving Old Documents’, Computers in Libraries, 20(2): 26–50.

Shadbolt, N., and M. A. Burton (1990). ‘Knowledge Elicitation Techniques: Some Experimental Results’, in K.L. McGraw, and C. R. Westphal (eds.), Readings in Knowledge Acquisition, Current Practices and Trends (London: Ellis Horwood), 17–23.

Shaw, M. L. G., and B. R. Gaines (1983). ‘A Computer Aid to Knowledge Engineering’, Proceedings of British Computer Society Conference on Expert Systems (Cambridge: British Computer Society), 263–71.

Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, Concordance, Collocation (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Smagorinsky, P. (1989). ‘The Reliability and Validity of Protocol Analysis’, Written Communication, 6(4): 463–77.

Smith, F. (1971). Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read. (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston).

Solange‐Pellat, E. (1927). Les Lois d'écriture (Paris: Vuibert).

Stainton, R. J. (1996). Philosophical Perspectives on Language (Ontario: Broadview Press).

Stark, J. A. (1992). Digital Image Processing Techniques with Applications in Restoring Ancient Manuscripts (Cambridge: Department of Engineering Science, University of Cambridge, EIST Project Report).

Stemler, S. (2001). ‘An Overview of Content Analysis’, Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 7(17), http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=17 (accessed 27 Jan 2005).

Stewart, V. (2004). ‘Business Applications of Repertory Grid’, http://www.enquirewithin.co.nz/BUS_APP/business.htm (accessed 13 Jan 2005).

Stoppard, T. (1997). The Invention of Love (London: Faber & Faber).

Stubbs, M. (1996). Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer Assisted Studies of Language and Culture (Oxford: Blackwell).

(p.245) Swinney, D. A., and D. T. Hakes (1976). ‘Effects of Prior Context upon Lexical Access during Sentence Comprehension’, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 15(6): 681–9.

Tacitus, C. (1964). Tacitus on Britain and Germany: A Translation of the Agricola and the Germania, tr. H. Mattingly (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books).

Terras, M. (2002). ‘Image to Interpretation: Towards an Intelligent System to Aid Historians in the Reading of the Vindolanda Texts’, D.Phil. thesis, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford.

—— and P. Robertson (2004). ‘Downs and Acrosses: Textual Markup on a Stroke Based Level’, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 19(3): 397–414.

—— and—— (2005). ‘Image and Interpretation: Using Artificial Intelligence to Read Ancient Roman Texts’, HumanIT, 7: 3.

Thomas, J. D. (1976). ‘New Light on Early Latin Writing’, Scriptorium, 30: 38–43.

—— (1992). ‘The Latin Writing Tablets from Vindolanda in North Britain’, in E. Lalou, (ed.), Bibliologia: Les Tablettes á écrire de l'antiquité á l'époque moderne. (Turnhout: Brepols), 12: 204–7.

Thompson, E. M. (1912). Introduction to Greek and Latin Palaeography (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Thoyts, E. E. (1893). How to Decipher and Study Old Documents: Being a Guide to the Reading of Ancient Manuscripts (London: Elliot Stock).

Tjäder, J. O. (1977). ‘Latin Palaeography, 1975–7’, Eranos, 75: 131–60.

—— (1979). Considerazione e proposte sulla scrittura Latina nell' età Romana (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura).

—— (1986). ‘Review of Tabulae Vindolandenses I’, Scriptorium, 40: 297–301.

Tomlin, R. S. O. (1985). ‘The Inscribed Objects’, in P. T. Bidwell (ed.), The Roman Fort of Vindolanda at Chesterholm, Northumberland (London: Historic and Monuments Commission for England) ch.17.

—— (1988). ‘The Finds from the Sacred Springs’, in B. Cunliffe (ed.), The Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath, Vii. (Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 16); 4–277.

—— (1994). ‘Vinisius to Nigra: Evidence from Oxford of Christianity in Roman Britain’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 100: 93–108.

—— (1996). ‘Review Article: The Vindolanda Tablets’, Britannia, 27: 459–63.

Tunmer, W. E., and W. A. Hoover (1992). ‘Cognitive and Linguistic Factors in Learning to Read’, in P. B. Gough, L. C. Ehri, and T. Rebecca (eds.), Reading Acquisition (London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), 175–214.

Turner, E. G. (1968). Greek Papyri: An Introduction (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

—— The Papyrologist at Work (Durham, N.C.: Duke University).

(p.246) Turner, E. G. (1980). Greek Papyri: An Introduction, rev. edn. (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Ullman, B. L. (1969). Ancient Writing and its Influence (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

Underwood, G., and R. Radach (1998). ‘Eye Guidance and Visual Information Processing: Reading, Visual Search, Picture Perception and Driving’, in E. Underwood (ed.), Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception. (Oxford: Elsevier), 1–28.

van Groningen, B. A. (1932). ‘Project d′unification des systèmes des signes critiques’, Chronique d'Egypte, 7: 262–9.

van Hoesen, H. B. (1915). Roman Cursive Writing (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

van Minnen, P. (1995). ‘The Century of Papyrology (1892–1992)’, http://odyssey.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/texts/history.html (accessed 27 Jan 2005).

Venuti, L. (ed.) (2000). The Translation Studies Reader (London: Routledge).

Viterbi, A. J. (1967). ‘Error Bounds for Convolution Codes and an Asymptotically Optimal Decoding Algorithm’, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Information Theory, 13: 260–9.

Wacholder, B.‐Z., and M. G. Abegg (1991). A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls, etc. fasiscle 1. (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeological Society).

Wallace, C. S., and D. M. Boulton (1968). ‘An Information Measure for Classification’, Computer Journal, 11: 185–95.

Ware, G. A., D. M. Chabries, R. W. Christiansen, and C. E. Martin (2000). ‘Multispectral Document Enhancement: Ancient Carbonized Scrolls’, Proceedings Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 2000 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, (IEEE), vi. 2486–8.

Waterman, D. A. (1986). A Guide to Expert Systems (Reading, Mass.: Addison‐Wesley).

Weinreich, M. (1945). ‘YIVO and the Problems of our Time’, Yivo‐Bleter, 25(1): 10–24.

White, S. (2000). ‘Enhancing Knowledge Acquisition with Constraint Technology’, D.Phil. thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Aberdeen.

Winter, J. G. (1936). ‘Papyrology: Its Contributions and Problems’, Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review (Summer): 234–48.

Woolley, S. I., N. J. Flowers, T. N. Arvanitis, A. Livingstone, T. R. Davis, and J. Ellison (2001). ‘3D Capture, Representation and Manipulation of Cuneiform Tablets’, IST/SPIE Electronic Imaging 2001, Proc SPIE (Three Dimensional Image Capture and Applications IV), 4298: 103–10.

(p.247) Wordsworth, W. (1819). ‘Upon the Same Occasion’, in W. Knight (ed.), The Poetical Works of William Wordsworth, vi (Edinburgh: William Paterson, 1884), 182–5.

Yarbus, A. L. (1967). Eye Movements and Vision (New York: Plenum Press).

Youtie, H. C. (1963). ‘The Papyrologist: Artificer of Fact’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 4: 19–32.

—— (1966). ‘Text and Context in Transcribing Papyri’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 7: 251–8.

Zhu, S. C., and A. Yuille (1996). ‘Region Competition: Unifying Snakes, Region Growing, and Bayes/MDL for Multi‐Band Image Segmentation’, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 18(9): 884–900.

Zhang, Y., and K. K. Tan (2004). Convergence Analysis of Recurrent Neural Networks (Network Theory and Applications, 13; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Zipf, G. K. (1935). The Psycho‐Biology of Language (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, repr. 1965)

Zuckerman, B. (1996). ‘Bringing the Dead Sea Scrolls Back to Life: A New Evaluation of Photographic and Electronic Imaging of the Dead Sea Scrolls’, Dead Sea Discoveries, 3(2): 178–207. (p.248)