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How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy$

Mónica Ferrín and Hanspeter Kriesi

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198766902

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766902.001.0001

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(p.343) Appendix C Additional tables and figures

(p.343) Appendix C Additional tables and figures

Source:
How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.344) (p.345)

Table A3.1 Summary of importance attributed to all elements of democracy by country

AL

BE

BG

CH

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

ES

FI

FR

Free elections

Mean

9.6

8.5

9.3

9.0

9.6

8.7

9.1

9.3

8.9

9.2

9.3

8.5

SD

1.3

1.8

1.4

1.5

1.1

1.8

1.6

1.3

1.8

1.4

1.2

1.8

% DK

1.0

.8

3.2

3.4

2.3

3.0

.9

1.5

2.8

2.1

1.5

1.3

Differentiated offer parties

Mean

8.4

7.7

9.1

7.4

9.0

7.8

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.2

7.4

8.0

SD

2.6

2.0

1.6

2.1

1.7

2.0

2.2

2.0

2.2

2.1

1.8

2.0

% DK

4.9

1.3

6.1

5.0

3.4

6.0

1.2

2.2

5.9

3.8

2.7

1.3

Parties free criticize

Mean

9.0

7.8

9.1

7.8

9.1

7.9

8.7

8.7

8.2

8.0

7.9

7.9

SD

2.0

2.0

1.5

2.1

1.6

2.0

1.8

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.0

2.2

% DK

2.4

1.6

5.5

4.8

3.1

4.9

1.5

2.4

4.2

3.3

2.9

.9

Participation in deliberation

Mean

7.0

7.0

7.7

7.9

8.3

7.3

7.5

7.7

7.5

7.4

6.6

7.0

SD

3.7

2.3

2.7

1.9

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.3

2.6

2.6

2.2

2.5

% DK

3.3

1.1

7.8

3.5

6.4

4.0

1.1

1.7

3.4

3.4

2.2

.9

Justification by government

Mean

9.5

8.6

9.3

8.9

9.2

8.4

9.1

9.2

9.0

9.3

8.6

8.9

SD

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.5

1.9

1.4

1.1

1.7

1.4

1.5

1.5

% DK

2.9

.9

4.3

2.6

3.1

3.2

.5

1.0

2.4

1.7

2.1

.7

Retrospective accountability

Mean

9.1

8.0

9.0

8.0

9.2

8.4

8.6

8.1

8.2

9.2

8.2

8.5

SD

2.2

1.9

1.8

1.9

1.5

2.0

1.9

2.1

2.3

1.5

1.6

1.8

% DK

2.5

1.1

7.8

5.4

6.4

4.2

1.4

3.3

4.8

2.7

2.6

1.2

Responsible government

Mean

8.9

6.8

7.0

6.6

7.4

6.3

7.3

6.0

6.5

7.6

6.7

6.6

SD

2.0

2.1

2.5

2.5

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.2

2.0

2.5

% DK

4.4

1.6

17.8

5.4

10.7

8.0

2.4

4.7

6.1

5.3

3.5

1.4

Rule of law

Mean

9.8

8.9

9.5

9.4

9.5

9.0

9.6

9.7

9.1

9.5

9.2

9.1

SD

1.1

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.3

1.7

1.1

.9

1.7

1.2

1.5

1.5

% DK

1.2

1.1

3.1

2.1

.7

2.1

.2

1.3

2.6

1.5

1.9

.3

H. Accountability

Mean

9.5

8.4

9.3

8.7

8.9

8.4

9.2

9.2

9.0

9.3

8.6

8.5

SD

1.4

1.9

1.7

1.7

2.0

2.0

1.4

1.5

1.8

1.6

1.6

2.0

% DK

4.0

1.6

10.2

5.9

10.9

7.3

1.5

3.8

3.7

2.6

4.4

1.9

Minority rights

Mean

9.4

8.2

8.2

8.7

8.5

7.3

8.9

8.8

8.3

9.0

8.1

8.2

SD

1.7

1.8

2.4

1.5

2.2

2.1

1.7

1.6

2.2

1.6

1.7

1.8

% DK

3.1

1.2

4.8

2.9

3.8

4.5

.8

3.3

3.4

2.8

2.0

1.0

Press freedom

Mean

9.4

7.5

9.2

7.7

9.1

8.1

8.4

8.3

8.4

8.4

7.9

7.3

SD

1.7

2.3

1.5

2.2

1.6

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.0

2.6

% DK

2.2

1.2

4.5

3.4

2.3

4.3

.5

1.3

3.2

2.7

1.7

.8

Media reliability

Mean

9.7

8.2

9.2

8.7

9.2

8.6

9.1

9.2

8.7

9.2

8.5

8.3

SD

1.0

2.0

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.8

1.5

1.4

1.9

1.5

1.7

2.0

% DK

2.2

.7

5.0

3.3

2.3

2.6

.7

1.4

2.6

2.2

2.4

.8

Protection against poverty

Mean

9.8

8.5

9.2

8.4

9.5

8.0

8.6

8.7

8.3

9.4

8.3

8.8

SD

1.0

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.3

2.3

2.0

1.7

2.3

1.3

1.7

1.7

% DK

1.3

.6

2.1

2.7

.6

2.5

.5

1.5

2.6

1.5

1.7

.4

Red. income differences

Mean

9.4

7.9

9.0

7.7

8.9

7.3

8.1

6.7

8.3

8.8

8.1

8.0

SD

1.5

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.0

2.6

2.2

2.6

2.3

1.7

1.9

2.1

% DK

3.1

.8

3.1

2.9

3.4

4.2

.9

3.7

3.2

3.0

2.3

.6

Direct participation

Mean

9.3

7.6

8.8

8.7

9.0

8.1

8.1

8.4

8.4

8.8

7.9

8.0

SD

1.7

2.1

1.9

1.6

1.6

2.0

2.2

1.9

2.1

1.7

1.9

1.9

% DK

4.4

2.4

6.7

3.1

4.5

5.6

1.4

2.4

3.5

3.8

1.9

1.4

Inclusiveness (migrants)

Mean

8.5

7.4

7.8

7.9

7.2

7.5

8.3

8.2

8.0

7.9

8.1

7.5

SD

2.6

2.6

2.8

2.6

3.5

2.4

2.3

2.3

2.7

2.6

1.9

2.8

% DK

5.3

1.2

14.6

3.7

5.9

8.2

1.4

2.4

4.5

4.3

1.8

1.1

Power-sharing 0 = majoritarian 1 = consensual

Mean

.72

.86

.52

.97

.76

.84

.89

.91

.89

.61

.97

.73

SD

.45

.35

.50

.16

.42

.37

.31

.28

.31

.49

.17

.45

Imp. maj.

8.5

7.0

8.0

7.1

8.5

6.8

6.8

7.3

7.1

7.6

6.8

7.0

Imp. consens.

8.5

7.9

8.1

8.9

9.1

7.8

8.1

8.3

8.3

8.0

8.6

7.4

% DK

3.5

1.3

14.2

3.2

4.8

5.9

1.8

2.5

4.2

7.4

1.7

2.7

Freedom expression 0 = protective 1 = tolerant

Mean

.70

.75

.80

.86

.87

.63

.80

.92

.79

.85

.90

.88

SD

.46

.44

.40

.35

.34

.48

.40

.27

.41

.36

.30

.32

Imp. Protect

7.1

7.1

6.7

7.0

8.3

7.2

7.7

6.4

6.9

6.6

6.2

6.6

Imp. Tolerant

8.8

8.0

8.9

8.6

9.4

7.7

8.6

8.9

8.2

8.5

8.6

8.2

% DK

3.3

.9

9.6

1.4

2.3

5.7

.7

2.1

3.8

3.1

1.5

.9

Responsiveness 0 = trustee 1 = mandate

Mean

.15

.25

.12

.13

.15

.28

.15

.47

.14

.13

.32

.26

SD

.36

.43

.33

.33

.36

.45

.35

.50

.34

.33

.47

.44

Imp. Trustee

7.9

7.2

7.3

7.2

8.0

7.0

7.3

8.1

7.0

7.4

7.4

7.1

Imp. Mandate

8.8

7.6

8.7

8.4

9.2

7.9

8.4

8.0

8.1

8.4

7.8

7.6

% DK

4.0

1.3

9.1

2.5

3.9

6.5

1.2

3.4

2.9

3.2

2.5

1.6

N

1,201

1,863

2,232

1,468

1,115

1,985

2,955

1,632

2,347

1,864

2,179

1,968

(p.346)

GB

HU

IE

IL

IS

IT

LT

NL

NO

PL

PT

RU

Free elections

Mean

8.7

9.0

8.5

9.3

9.4

8.9

8.4

8.9

9.3

9.3

8.6

8.5

SD

1.8

1.8

2.0

1.3

1.2

1.7

2.0

1.5

1.3

1.4

1.7

2.1

% DK

4.3

1.6

2.4

2.5

.4

1.7

3.8

.9

.6

2.3

1.8

4.0

Differentiated offer parties

Mean

7.5

8.7

7.7

8.0

7.9

8.5

7.7

7.6

8.3

8.2

8.2

7.9

SD

2.2

1.9

2.3

2.4

2.0

2.0

2.3

1.7

1.6

2.1

1.9

2.4

% DK

6.6

3.4

3.3

6.2

1.9

2.2

6.5

1.8

1.1

5.3

2.0

5.6

Parties free criticize

Mean

8.1

8.5

8.3

8.6

8.8

8.1

7.8

8.2

8.5

8.4

8.2

7.9

SD

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.0

1.6

2.3

2.3

1.6

1.8

2.1

1.9

2.4

% DK

5.3

2.9

1.9

4.0

1.3

2.2

5.8

1.4

1.3

4.2

2.0

6.0

Participation in deliberation

Mean

7.0

7.8

7.4

7.8

7.1

7.6

7.0

7.4

7.4

7.8

7.6

7.6

SD

2.4

2.5

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.4

2.6

2.0

2.2

2.6

2.2

2.6

% DK

6.3

3.9

4.0

5.6

1.3

2.8

8.8

1.1

.9

4.5

3.2

5.8

Justification by government

Mean

8.7

8.8

8.3

8.6

9.2

9.3

8.4

8.5

8.9

9.3

8.6

8.4

SD

1.9

1.8

2.2

2.0

1.2

1.4

2.0

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.8

2.2

% DK

4.4

2.3

2.5

3.2

.9

1.2

2.7

.7

1.1

1.4

.9

3.9

Retrospective accountability

Mean

8.2

8.6

8.5

8.0

8.0

8.9

7.8

8.0

8.2

8.9

8.5

8.2

SD

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.5

2.3

1.9

2.5

1.7

2.0

1.7

1.8

2.3

% DK

6.6

3.2

2.8

5.6

3.2

1.6

6.1

1.1

1.5

3.9

1.8

4.3

Responsible government

Mean

5.8

6.7

6.8

5.4

6.3

7.1

6.2

6.4

6.2

6.3

7.2

5.0

SD

2.7

2.6

2.6

3.0

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.0

2.2

2.7

2.3

2.8

% DK

10.3

5.9

7.7

25.7

6.0

5.3

14.0

2.8

2.1

11.7

10.8

14.6

Rule of law

Mean

8.9

9.1

8.6

9.5

9.7

9.5

8.6

8.9

9.6

9.6

8.9

8.9

SD

1.8

1.6

2.1

1.3

1.0

1.2

2.0

1.4

.9

1.2

1.7

1.9

% DK

4.3

1.6

2.1

2.0

1.1

.6

3.1

.6

.6

1.1

.7

2.8

H. Accountability

Mean

8.6

8.9

8.4

8.0

8.9

8.2

8.6

8.4

9.1

9.3

8.3

8.7

SD

2.0

1.8

2.1

2.7

1.9

2.6

2.0

1.8

1.5

1.5

2.0

2.0

% DK

7.4

3.4

6.3

10.3

4.6

4.1

4.0

1.8

2.0

6.9

3.9

5.9

Minority rights

Mean

7.9

8.1

8.0

8.6

9.2

8.7

7.6

8.3

8.4

8.8

8.6

7.3

SD

2.2

2.3

2.1

2.3

1.4

1.8

2.3

1.6

1.8

1.8

1.9

3.0

% DK

6.6

2.3

3.2

4.9

.5

1.5

7.0

1.4

1.2

4.0

1.7

9.3

Press freedom

Mean

7.8

8.5

8.1

8.5

8.7

7.8

8.2

7.7

8.4

8.4

8.1

8.0

SD

2.2

2.1

2.0

2.1

1.9

2.6

2.2

1.9

1.9

2.3

2.1

2.5

% DK

4.7

2.7

1.9

3.5

.8

2.2

4.6

1.1

.6

2.5

1.6

5.1

Media reliability

Mean

8.2

8.9

8.3

8.9

9.3

8.8

8.3

8.4

9.0

9.4

8.4

8.6

SD

2.2

1.8

2.1

1.8

1.4

1.8

2.1

1.7

1.5

1.4

1.9

2.1

% DK

5.3

2.3

1.8

3.0

1.5

1.6

2.9

.9

.7

1.6

1.1

3.5

Protection against poverty

Mean

8.5

8.7

8.4

9.1

8.6

9.3

8.1

8.1

8.6

9.0

8.8

8.6

SD

2.1

2.0

2.1

1.6

1.9

1.4

2.3

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.7

2.1

% DK

4.4

1.7

1.5

2.1

.9

.9

3.3

.8

.8

1.0

.7

2.6

Red. income differences

Mean

7.5

8.8

7.8

9.0

8.3

8.9

8.2

7.1

7.6

8.7

8.7

8.4

SD

2.4

1.8

2.3

1.8

2.1

1.7

2.2

2.1

2.1

2.1

1.7

2.2

% DK

6.1

2.0

2.7

2.8

2.0

1.7

3.4

.9

1.0

2.1

.9

3.9

Direct participation

Mean

8.1

8.7

8.4

7.6

8.2

8.6

8.2

7.2

8.3

8.8

7.9

8.3

SD

2.1

1.8

2.0

2.6

2.0

1.9

2.1

2.2

1.8

1.7

2.0

2.2

% DK

6.2

2.1

1.9

6.6

1.7

2.4

3.9

2.3

1.2

3.9

4.3

5.2

Inclusiveness (migrants)

Mean

8.2

8.8

7.8

7.7

7.9

7.7

7.4

7.7

7.9

8.5

7.5

7.2

SD

2.4

2.0

2.4

2.9

2.7

2.9

2.6

2.1

2.4

2.1

2.3

3.1

% DK

6.0

3.1

4.2

7.1

2.8

1.9

11.3

1.5

1.0

6.6

10.4

9.3

Power-sharing 0 = majoritarian 1 = consensual

Mean

.34

.85

.73

.83

.89

.61

.88

.93

.75

.69

.48

.80

SD

.48

.35

.45

.37

.31

.49

.33

.26

.43

.46

.50

.40

Imp. Maj.

7.9

7.0

7.3

8.0

7.2

7.9

7.5

7.1

7.0

7.8

7.4

6.2

Imp. Consens.

7.3

8.0

7.4

8.8

8.1

7.8

7.9

8.2

7.4

8.0

7.5

8.2

% DK

7.3

9.8

6.4

10.7

2.7

4.5

14.8

1.6

1.5

9.9

17.5

13.9

Freedom expression 0 = protective 1 = tolerant

Mean

.79

.63

.88

.80

.90

.88

.81

.74

.72

.92

.91

.75

SD

.41

.48

.33

.40

.30

.32

.39

.44

.45

.27

.28

.43

Imp. Protect

6.8

7.2

5.8

7.5

6.5

6.7

7.0

7.0

7.3

6.5

6.6

5.7

Imp. Tolerant

8.4

8.4

8.5

8.8

8.6

8.4

8.1

8.2

8.4

8.7

8.0

7.8

% DK

3.2

8.6

2.7

3.9

1.3

2.3

9.4

1.3

.9

3.5

8.5

9.0

Responsiveness 0 = trustee 1 = mandate

Mean

.21

.21

.28

.23

.29

.12

.10

.30

.30

.17

.09

.17

SD

.41

.41

.45

.42

.45

.33

.31

.46

.46

.38

.29

.38

Imp. trustee

7.6

7.2

6.9

7.7

7.8

6.6

6.9

7.3

7.6

7.8

6.7

6.3

Imp. mandate

8.0

8.0

7.9

8.5

8.1

8.2

8.3

7.7

7.9

8.4

8.0

8.0

% DK

4.5

8.5

5.1

5.3

3.5

2.1

7.1

2.1

1.4

4.9

6.1

7.8

N

2,227

2,014

2,620

2,482

750

960

2,109

1,838

1,614

1,879

2,140

2,461

(p.347) (p.348) (p.349)

SE

SI

SK

UA

XK

EUR

Free elections

Mean

9.4

9.1

8.4

9.0

8.8

8.95

SD

1.3

1.7

2.0

1.7

2.1

1.70

% DK

2.1

3.5

1.5

2.7

4.2

2.3

Differentiated offer parties

Mean

8.1

7.7

7.6

8.4

8.1

7.97

SD

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.1

2.4

2.13

% DK

2.3

6.7

2.3

5.3

10.4

4.0

Parties free criticize

Mean

8.9

7.8

7.8

8.2

8.4

8.28

SD

1.6

2.3

2.2

2.4

2.3

2.07

% DK

3.5

6.0

1.8

5.8

8.4

3.5

Participation in deliberation

Mean

7.1

6.7

7.5

7.7

7.7

7.42

SD

2.6

2.8

2.4

2.7

2.8

2.51

% DK

3.3

4.8

1.6

6.2

9.7

3.9

Justification by government

Mean

9.2

9.0

8.1

9.0

8.9

8.84

SD

1.2

1.6

2.2

1.6

1.8

1.70

% DK

1.6

3.4

1.7

2.7

7.4

2.3

Retrospective accountability

Mean

7.8

8.7

7.7

8.7

8.6

8.38

SD

2.5

1.9

2.4

2.0

2.2

2.07

% DK

5.6

4.9

2.7

4.8

6.9

3.8

Responsible government

Mean

6.1

7.1

6.1

6.7

7.2

6.58

SD

2.6

2.4

2.6

2.6

2.8

2.57

% DK

4.2

10.4

4.4

18.0

13.7

8.6

Rule of law

Mean

9.7

9.5

8.5

9.3

9.2

9.21

SD

.8

1.3

2.1

1.6

1.7

1.57

% DK

1.2

3.2

1.3

2.2

5.1

1.8

H. Accountability

Mean

9.0

8.9

8.3

9.2

9.0

8.77

SD

1.7

1.9

2.1

1.6

1.8

1.90

% DK

4.9

6.2

3.2

5.6

8.0

5.0

Minority rights

Mean

8.9

8.7

7.3

8.2

8.5

8.31

SD

1.6

1.7

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.10

% DK

2.3

4.5

1.9

9.6

6.5

3.7

Press freedom

Mean

8.9

7.8

7.9

8.4

8.7

8.23

SD

1.7

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.17

% DK

1.7

4.2

1.8

4.6

6.0

2.7

Media reliability

Mean

9.1

8.7

8.1

9.0

8.5

8.73

SD

1.5

1.9

2.1

1.6

2.3

1.83

% DK

1.8

4.8

1.4

2.1

5.1

2.3

Protection against poverty

Mean

8.6

9.2

8.0

9.2

9.2

8.68

SD

1.9

1.6

2.4

1.6

1.7

1.91

% DK

1.9

3.2

1.9

2.2

3.3

1.8

Red. income differences

Mean

8.2

8.9

7.9

9.1

8.8

8.24

SD

2.0

1.7

2.4

1.7

2.1

2.19

% DK

2.5

4.1

1.7

3.0

8.0

2.7

Direct participation

Mean

8.1

7.9

7.9

8.8

8.6

8.27

SD

2.0

2.4

2.1

1.8

2.2

2.06

% DK

2.8

5.0

2.1

4.3

9.7

3.7

Inclusiveness (migrants)

Mean

8.3

8.8

7.0

7.8

8.1

7.87

SD

2.2

2.0

2.8

2.6

2.5

2.55

% DK

3.0

5.2

3.8

14.7

15.7

5.7

Power-sharing 0 = majoritarian 1 = consensual

Mean

.71

.81

.72

.70

.71

.77

SD

.45

.39

.45

.46

.45

.42

Imp. maj.

7.3

6.8

7.1

6.9

8.2

7.4

Imp. consens.

7.4

8.4

8.1

8.0

8.4

8.1

% DK

4.7

9.9

5.2

16.6

12.6

7.3

Freedom expression 0 = protective 1 = tolerant

Mean

.92

.72

.69

.88

.71

.81

SD

.28

.45

.46

.32

.46

.39

Imp. protect

6.9

6.4

7.2

6.3

6.9

6.9

Imp. tolerant

9.0

8.2

7.9

8.2

8.4

8.4

% DK

.7

8.8

5.0

10.8

17.1

4.6

Responsiveness 0 = trustee 1 = mandate

Mean

.30

.16

.15

.12

.17

.21

SD

.46

.37

.36

.33

.37

.40

Imp. trustee

7.8

7.1

7.0

7.1

7.0

7.3

Imp. mandate

8.3

8.3

8.3

8.4

8.6

8.2

% DK

2.5

8.3

4.9

9.1

14.7

4.8

N

1,830

1,229

1,839

2,178

1,270

5,4 673

(p.350) (p.351)

Table A4.1 Liberal democracy scale, by country: item-specific Loevinger H, scale H, Cronbach’s alpha, monotonicity

AL

BE

BG

CH

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

ES

eqlaw

.60

.77

.68

.76

.60

.75

.75

.72

.77

.75

free

.47

.60

.61

.56

.59

.59

.50

.56

.65

.58

courts

.49

.54

.50

.51

.44

.59

.55

.51

.71

.64

mreliable

.52

.61

.56

.57

.55

.61

.56

.56

.70

.67

explain

.45

.56

.51

.49

.49

.59

.45

.43

.67

.64

minority

.46

.58

.49

.55

.48

.59

.52

.56

.66

.69

rascals

.43

.51

.50

.49

.44

.56

.45

.44

.60

.61

mfree

.47

.59

.59

.53

.53

.63

.53

.57

.67

.68

opp

.53

.60

.60

.58

.55

.63

.56

.58

.70

.70

offer

.49

.61

.58

.51

.52

.61

.52

.54

.71

.66

talk

.54

.60

.61

.50

.56

.50

.51

.51

.67

.68

eu

.40

.56

.50

.50

.44

.55

.46

.48

.57

.50

N

1,201

1,869

2,260

1,493

1,116

2,009

2,958

1,650

2,380

1,889

Loevinger H

.48

.59

.56

.54

.51

.6

.52

.54

.68

.55

Cronbach’s α‎

.85

.76

.83

.78

.8

.8

.79

.79

.82

.76

monotonicity

FI

FR

GB

HU

IE

IL

IS

IT

LT

NL

eqlaw

.72

.78

.79

.8

.68

.63

.73

.66

.72

.71

free

.66

.60

.65

.77

.63

.61

.54

.54

.70

.69

courts

.51

.61

.64

.72

.62

.43

.46

.39

.72

.56

mreliable

.57

.65

.66

.71

.67

.56

.60

.58

.69

.62

explain

.49

.63

.66

.68

.63

.45

.48

.63

.61

.52

minority

.53

.65

.64

.69

.65

.33

.60

.56

.64

.60

rascals

.48

.56

.56

.62

.59

.42

.49

.50

.59

.51

mfree

.52

.65

.63

.71

.66

.50

.58

.55

.70

.58

opp

.55

.67

.66

.72

.64

.54

.60

.59

.71

.61

offer

.56

.62

.66

.7

.67

.52

.54

.56

.68

.61

talk

.47

.65

.62

.69

.61

.49

.59

.57

.72

.56

eu

.38

.53

.59

.67

.64

.37

.54

.46

.51

.57

N

2,197

1,968

2,286

2,014

2,628

2,508

752

960

2,109

1,845

Loevinger H

.57

.64

.65

.69

.64

.49

.56

.55

.67

.6

Cronbach’s α‎

.85

.91

.8

.81

.8

.81

.8

.89

.92

.78

monotonicity

minority

mfree

eu

NO

PL

PT

RU

SE

SI

SK

UA

XK

eqlaw

.74

.71

.85

.76

.81

.82

.71

.71

.70

free

.59

.58

.78

.63

.60

.57

.67

.62

.68

courts

.50

.58

.72

.64

.45

.61

.64

.60

.69

mreliable

.59

.66

.76

.66

.59

.59

.63

.63

.63

explain

.43

.56

.76

.58

.46

.59

.58

.59

.64

minority

.53

.56

.72

.56

.57

.58

.59

.54

.59

rascals

.48

.53

.73

.57

.50

.56

.53

.52

.59

(p.352)

Table A4.1

NO

PL

PT

RU

SE

SI

SK

UA

XK

mfree

.54

.55

.79

.65

.58

.62

.64

.62

.66

opp

.58

.60

.79

.67

.57

.65

.64

.62

.67

offer

.55

.62

.77

.64

.57

.61

.63

.60

.69

talk

.53

.59

.81

.67

.61

.52

.62

.60

.67

eu

.60

.58

.79

.59

.53

.45

.57

.51

.62

N

1,624

1,898

2,151

2,484

1,847

1,257

1,847

2,178

1,295

Loevinger H

.54

.59

.77

.64

.56

.6

.62

.6

.65

Cronbach’s α‎

.8

.81

.86

.82

.82

.78

.78

.9

.83

monotonicity

Table A4.2 Liberal democracy scale, by country: item-specific levels of requirement, scale statistics

item

AL

BE

BG

CH

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

ES

eqlaw

.91

.53

.79

.72

.80

.63

.85

.80

.65

.77

free

.87

.41

.70

.54

.79

.50

.65

.67

.61

.66

courts

.80

.36

.65

.45

.56

.44

.67

.62

.61

.68

mreliable

.83

.35

.62

.44

.66

.47

.63

.60

.54

.61

explain

.78

.36

.67

.45

.66

.44

.59

.56

.58

.66

minority

.77

.30

.44

.41

.51

.22

.55

.46

.45

.57

rascals

.75

.26

.58

.28

.63

.44

.48

.33

.41

.64

mfree

.78

.23

.64

.28

.61

.33

.47

.41

.46

.46

opp

.69

.25

.59

.28

.60

.29

.52

.45

.41

.39

offer

.55

.20

.57

.16

.60

.24

.21

.18

.32

.36

talk

.42

.13

.36

.24

.46

.25

.27

.25

.30

.27

eu

.59

.09

.17

.11

.27

.12

.20

.05

.15

.23

N

1,201

1,869

2,260

1,493

1,116

2,009

2,958

1,650

2,380

1,889

mean

.73

.29

.56

.36

.60

.36

.51

.45

.46

.52

sd

.26

.30

.31

.29

.31

.31

.29

.28

.35

.33

skewness

−1.10

.75

−.42

.37

−.45

.41

−.24

−.03

.03

−.23

item

FI

FR

GB

HU

IE

IL

IS

IT

LT

NL

eqlaw

.60

.60

.57

.67

.50

.77

.82

.73

.48

.49

free

.59

.44

.51

.64

.48

.68

.67

.57

.42

.51

courts

.37

.45

.43

.60

.42

.43

.54

.47

.47

.33

mreliable

.35

.39

.40

.57

.40

.57

.65

.53

.41

.34

explain

.31

.50

.49

.57

.42

.50

.58

.67

.41

.29

minority

.24

.35

.31

.43

.35

.53

.62

.50

.25

.28

rascals

.25

.43

.35

.52

.46

.44

.33

.57

.33

.22

mfree

.25

.27

.31

.51

.33

.45

.50

.38

.37

.21

opp

.24

.31

.34

.51

.39

.48

.49

.39

.30

.27

offer

.09

.31

.22

.53

.29

.37

.25

.45

.27

.13

talk

.06

.18

.18

.38

.26

.33

.18

.30

.21

.13

eu

.04

.11

.07

.19

.17

.07

.06

.22

.10

.04

n

2,197

1,968

2,286

2,014

2,628

2,508

752

960

2,109

1,845

mean

.28

.36

.35

.51

.37

.47

.48

.48

.34

.27

sd

.26

.33

.32

.37

.35

.30

.28

.32

.34

.28

skewness

.61

.41

.41

−.18

.40

−.04

−.19

−.05

.53

.77

(p.353)

item

NO

PL

PT

RU

SE

SI

SK

UA

XK

eqlaw

.78

.81

.56

.63

.84

.78

.45

.72

.68

free

.66

.67

.47

.51

.71

.65

.41

.58

.60

courts

.56

.65

.40

.54

.60

.57

.39

.65

.62

mreliable

.52

.70

.40

.53

.63

.49

.32

.59

.53

explain

.46

.67

.45

.49

.58

.57

.35

.56

.57

minority

.39

.53

.44

.34

.54

.47

.24

.40

.50

rascals

.34

.54

.42

.45

.33

.49

.30

.50

.55

mfree

.40

.48

.35

.41

.57

.31

.32

.47

.55

opp

.41

.42

.36

.39

.55

.27

.27

.41

.49

offer

.28

.36

.36

.38

.32

.25

.26

.42

.43

talk

.19

.33

.28

.33

.23

.18

.25

.36

.39

eu

.05

.13

.22

.05

.09

.18

.11

.14

.29

N

1,624

1,898

2,151

2,484

1,847

1,257

1,847

2,178

1,295

mean

.42

.52

.39

.42

.50

.43

.31

.48

.52

sd

.29

.31

.39

.34

.29

.30

.33

.33

.36

skewness

.14

−.23

.39

.14

−.23

.13

.70

−.08

−.16

Table A5.1 Variables employed

Country-level

Description

Min–Max

Mean

Stdev

Economic development

Log of GDP per capita, in $ by inhabitant, 2012, World Bank

8.1 (Kosovo) to 11.5 (Norway)

10.07

.88

Age of democracy

Number of years that country had continuous Polity score > = 8, topcoded at 70

0 (Russia, Ukraine) to 70 (Ireland, Sweden)

41.41

25.20

Change in unemployment

Change in p.p. from 2008 to 2012 in unemployment rate (World Bank)

−16.6 (Kosovo) to 13.7 (Spain)

2.82

4.98

Redistribution

Difference in p.p. between net Gini index (post-taxes and transfers) and gross Gini index (pre-taxes and transfers) for 2011 (Solt, Standardized World Income Database)

4.54 (Ukraine) to 23.22 (Sweden)

12.49

4.89

Direct democracy index

Based on Fiorino and Ricciuti (2007)

1 (Ukraine) to 7 (Switzerland)

4.73

1.37

(p.354)

Table A5.1

Individual-level

Description

Min–Max

Mean

Stdev

N

Gender

1 (Male)/2 (Female). Dummy variable

0/1

.54

.50

52,953

Age

Age of respondent in years, equal to age

18–103

49.35

17.95

52,820

Fifth quintile

Dummies for highest income quintile, based on hinctnta

0/1

.16

.36

43,041

Years of education

Years of full-time education completed, from eduyrs

0–51

12.62

4.05

52,525

Relative education

More years of education than subsample mean of cohort in country. Cohorts: 25–39; 40–54; 55–69; 70up. Dummy var.

0/1

.44

.50

52,953

Unemployed

Unemployed, based on uempla and uempli. Dummy var

0/1

.08

.29

52,953

Religiosity

Religiosity (“How religious are you?”), scale 0–10, equal to rlgdgr

0–10

4.78

3.08

52,408

Interest in politics

Interest in politics, from 1 (Not at all) to 4 (Very), based on polintr

1–4

2.35

.91

52,699

Interpersonal trust

Summative scale for ppltrst pplfair pplhlp (Cronbach’s α‎ = .781)

0–10

5.09

2.01

54,607

Left–right self-placement

Left–right self-placement, from 0 (Left) to 10 (Right), equal to lrscale

0–10

2.34

45,235

45,235

Political trust

Summative scale for trstprl trstlgl trstplt trstplc trstplt (Cronbach’s α‎ = .873)

0–10

4.40

2.297

54,307

Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy scale

0–1

.43

.33

52,953

Social justice

Social justice scale

0–1

.47

.45

52,953

Direct democracy

Direct democracy scale. Dummy variable.

0/1

.41

.49

50,929

(p.355)

Table A5.2 Multilevel random intercept and random slopes models

Independent variables

Liberal democracy

Direct democracy

Social justice

Female

−.014***

.032

.030***

(.003)

(.024)

(.004)

Age

.029***

.064*

.062***

(.004)

(.029)

(.005)

Age*Age

−.087***

−.225***

−.091***

(.007)

(.054)

(.010)

Direct Democracy Index (DDI)

−.423

(.229)

5th income quintile

.016*

−.161*

−.060***

(.007)

(.064)

(.012)

5th income quintile*DDI

.162

(.133)

Relative education

.012

−.058

−.019

(.007)

(.046)

(.011)

Relative education*DDI

.157*

(.074)

Years of education

.044***

−.046

−.010

(.005)

(.040)

(.007)

Religiosity

−.019***

−.012

.002

(.003)

(.026)

(.005)

Unemployed

.008

.113*

.044***

(.006)

(.044)

(.008)

Left–Right

−.015***

−.020

−.065***

(.003)

(.024)

(.004)

Left–Right*Left–Right

.095***

.574***

.104***

(.005)

(.035)

(.007)

Interest in politics

.103***

.326***

.060***

(.004)

(.027)

(.005)

Political trust

−.044***

−.526***

−.076***

(.004)

(.031)

(.006)

Interpersonal trust

.008*

−.073*

−.015**

(.004)

(.029)

(.005)

∆ in unemployment 08–12

.001

.303

.090

(.027)

(.271)

(.048)

Economic development

−.108*

−.183

−.159*

(.055)

(.402)

(.076)

Age of democracy

.009

.017

.045

(.062)

(.380)

(.073)

5th income quintile*Age of democracy

.009

(.015)

Relative education*Age of democracy

.048***

(.011)

Redistribution

−.048

(.053)

5th income quintile*Redistribution

.013

(.024)

Relative education*Redistribution

−.002

(.019)

Constant

.434***

−.504***

.463***

(.018)

(.095)

(.023)

Observations

37,043

34,319

36,353

Number of groups

29

27

28

Random effects parameters

sd (5th income quintile)

.029

.259

.053

sd (Relative education)

.024

.140

.045

sd (Constant)

.096

.458

.118

Standard errors in parentheses

(***) p < .001;

(**) p < .01;

(*) p < .05

(p.356) (p.357)

Table A8.1 Summary of evaluations of all elements of democracy by country

AL

BE

BG

CH

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

ES

FI

FR

Free elections

Mean

3.8

7.4

4.0

8.2

8.4

7.2

8.5

9.1

6.3

6.9

9.1

7.4

SD

3.4

2.3

2.9

1.8

2.2

2.6

2.0

1.5

2.9

2.8

1.3

2.1

% DK

1.2

1.1

8.9

4.0

3.0

4.2

2.3

.9

5.2

3.3

1.1

1.6

Differentiated offer parties

Mean

5.5

5.9

4.4

6.6

4.9

5.6

5.8

5.7

5.4

5.2

6.6

5.2

SD

3.2

2.1

2.7

1.9

2.8

2.5

2.3

2.1

2.5

2.6

2.0

2.2

% DK

2.5

1.1

6.3

3.2

2.7

4.6

1.9

.9

5.9

3.2

1.9

.8

Parties free to criticize

Mean

7.2

7.4

7.0

7.7

8.4

7.2

8.5

8.7

6.8

7.3

8.0

7.6

SD

3.1

2.0

2.7

1.9

2.3

2.3

1.8

1.6

2.7

2.5

1.7

2.0

% DK

1.7

1.1

6.0

5.1

2.1

5.1

2.6

1.9

5.9

2.4

2.6

.8

Retrospective accountability

Mean

3.8

6.1

5.5

7.1

4.4

3.5

6.0

7.7

3.9

5.4

7.3

6.0

SD

3.5

2.4

3.5

2.0

3.2

2.8

2.9

2.2

2.9

3.1

1.9

2.6

% DK

1.5

1.1

7.3

3.8

3.9

3.7

4.3

1.6

6.2

2.4

1.8

1.0

Justification by government

Mean

4.4

5.3

3.2

6.9

4.0

3.4

4.7

6.5

4.0

3.3

6.5

4.8

SD

3.5

2.2

2.7

2.0

2.9

2.5

2.5

2.1

2.6

2.7

2.1

2.2

% DK

2.6

1.3

6.8

4.1

3.5

3.0

2.7

1.7

4.7

2.7

2.9

1.2

Participation in deliberation

Mean

6.9

6.4

5.9

7.1

7.0

7.0

6.4

7.1

6.4

6.1

6.7

6.5

SD

3.1

2.1

2.9

2.0

2.6

2.4

2.3

2.1

2.6

2.5

2.0

2.3

% DK

1.4

1.1

6.0

3.5

2.5

2.8

2.8

1.7

4.7

3.3

1.9

.8

Responsible government

Mean

4.8

5.8

6.1

6.0

5.0

4.6

5.6

6.5

5.7

5.6

6.8

5.4

SD

3.4

1.9

2.7

2.0

2.7

2.3

2.2

2.0

2.6

2.7

1.8

2.2

% DK

1.4

.8

6.5

2.4

2.7

4.2

2.8

2.0

3.8

2.4

1.4

1.0

Rule of law

Mean

3.0

5.4

2.3

7.1

5.1

3.8

6.4

8.1

5.1

3.1

7.4

4.9

SD

3.2

2.6

2.6

2.3

2.9

2.7

2.8

2.1

2.9

2.8

2.2

2.7

% DK

1.8

.9

6.5

4.5

4.0

3.8

3.5

2.3

7.1

2.0

2.6

1.4

Minority rights

Mean

5.2

6.4

6.9

7.1

7.7

6.5

7.2

7.3

5.1

4.6

7.1

6.0

SD

3.3

2.0

3.0

1.9

2.6

2.5

2.0

1.9

2.8

2.6

1.7

2.1

% DK

2.1

.8

4.3

2.3

1.6

4.0

2.4

2.0

5.0

2.6

1.7

1.3

Press freedom

Mean

6.9

7.3

6.2

7.8

8.0

7.1

8.4

8.9

7.1

7.1

8.1

7.1

SD

3.2

2.0

2.9

2.0

2.4

2.4

2.0

1.5

2.7

2.6

1.7

2.3

% DK

1.8

1.8

8.3

3.6

2.9

5.2

1.7

1.4

4.2

2.7

2.6

.9

Media reliability

Mean

6.0

6.2

5.1

6.7

5.8

5.5

6.7

6.4

5.7

5.6

7.1

5.5

SD

3.0

2.1

2.7

2.1

2.5

2.5

2.3

2.1

2.5

2.7

1.9

2.4

% DK

1.8

1.0

8.9

3.1

2.7

4.6

1.7

1.3

4.2

2.9

2.4

1.1

Protection against poverty

Mean

2.4

5.0

1.8

6.3

3.7

2.7

4.5

6.4

2.6

3.2

5.9

4.4

SD

2.9

2.4

2.2

2.3

2.8

2.5

2.8

2.4

2.4

2.6

2.3

2.4

% DK

2.3

1.7

4.6

5.5

2.5

4.7

2.3

2.6

4.4

3.6

2.9

1.5

Reduction income differences

Mean

3.4

5.0

1.7

5.4

3.9

2.9

4.2

5.9

3.0

3.0

6.0

4.4

SD

3.1

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.8

2.4

2.4

2.2

2.5

2.6

2.1

2.3

% DK

2.6

1.6

3.7

5.1

3.7

4.3

2.6

3.2

4.0

3.6

2.9

1.1

Direct participation

Mean

4.2

4.1

3.5

7.9

5.2

4.4

3.7

6.7

4.5

4.0

6.4

4.5

SD

3.5

3.0

3.2

2.0

3.2

3.0

3.1

2.7

3.0

3.2

2.6

2.7

% DK

3.0

1.4

5.8

2.1

2.4

6.6

2.9

1.7

5.2

3.7

2.1

1.3

Freedom of expression

Mean tolerant

5.9

6.7

6.9

7.7

7.6

6.1

7.3

8.4

6.1

6.3

7.8

6.7

SD tolerant

3.2

2.2

2.5

1.8

2.4

2.4

2.3

1.7

2.5

2.5

1.7

2.5

% DK tolerant

1.8

.6

8.4

2.0

1.5

5.7

1.2

1.0

4.4

2.4

2.3

.6

Mean protect

4.5

5.2

3.6

5.5

4.4

7.4

4.5

4.8

5.4

4.9

4.5

4.7

SD protect

3.3

2.3

2.6

2.4

2.8

1.9

2.4

2.7

2.3

2.6

2.3

2.5

% DK protect

7.4

1.5

8.7

2.5

1.3

3.0

3.2

1.7

10.8

3.0

.6

.8

Responsiveness

Mean Mandate

3.6

4.6

3.5

6.5

4.1

3.4

4.0

5.7

3.4

3.0

5.0

4.6

SD mandate

3.2

2.1

2.5

1.8

2.6

2.8

2.3

2.1

2.4

2.6

2.0

2.3

% DK mandate

2.9

.9

8.7

2.8

2.2

4.6

1.8

1.5

3.7

2.1

2.3

.9

Mean trustee

5.6

6.3

5.9

6.4

6.9

6.3

6.2

5.9

7.0

6.7

7.2

6.3

SD trustee

3.3

1.9

2.5

1.6

2.1

2.3

1.9

2.1

2.1

2.3

1.4

2.1

% DK trustee

3.2

2.0

3.9

2.8

4.7

3.2

3.2

4.3

4.3

.8

4.7

1.2

Power-sharing

Mean maj.

4.0

2.5

5.3

4.6

3.8

3.9

2.9

3.6

3.4

6.4

4.1

6.2

SD maj.

3.5

2.7

2.3

3.6

3.1

3.0

2.6

3.0

3.1

2.8

3.2

2.4

% DK maj.

9.0

.9

7.4

.9

2.0

3.0

2.8

1.4

2.2

4.7

1.1

1.9

Mean consens.

7.0

8.3

5.3

9.1

8.0

8.1

8.2

8.8

8.3

3.7

8.9

6.0

SD consens.

2.9

1.8

2.4

1.5

2.3

2.0

2.0

1.5

2.3

2.8

1.6

2.3

% DK consens.

2.6

.7

6.6

2.0

1.1

3.5

3.0

1.2

3.5

3.6

1.6

1.3

N

1,201

1,863

2,232

1,468

1,115

1,985

2,955

1,632

2,347

1,864

2,179

1,968

(p.358) (p.359)

GB

HU

IE

IL

IS

IT

LT

NL

NO

PL

PT

RU

Free elections

Mean

8.2

6.4

7.8

7.9

7.8

5.9

4.6

8.2

9.0

7.4

7.1

4.3

SD

2.0

2.7

2.2

2.1

2.2

2.7

2.9

1.8

1.5

2.7

2.4

2.9

% DK

4.3

6.7

4.1

6.6

.7

1.5

5.5

1.1

.8

4.1

6.8

6.8

Differentiated offer parties

Mean

5.9

5.8

5.9

5.8

5.6

3.7

4.2

6.5

6.7

6.2

5.0

4.9

SD

2.4

2.7

2.5

2.6

2.4

2.6

2.5

1.8

2.1

2.6

2.5

2.7

% DK

4.5

4.0

4.2

8.8

.9

.8

5.6

1.5

.7

3.5

4.6

7.5

Parties free to criticize

Mean

7.8

7.1

7.8

7.9

8.0

6.5

6.1

7.9

8.5

7.6

7.2

5.0

SD

2.0

2.6

2.1

2.3

2.0

2.5

2.8

1.6

1.7

2.4

2.1

2.9

% DK

4.7

4.1

2.8

8.5

1.1

1.3

6.1

1.5

.9

3.6

3.4

7.7

Retrospective accountability

Mean

6.2

5.0

6.7

4.7

5.7

3.1

4.8

6.8

7.3

5.6

4.4

3.6

SD

2.8

3.5

2.9

3.1

2.7

2.8

3.1

2.0

2.3

2.9

2.8

2.9

% DK

5.1

5.2

3.4

7.2

1.1

.7

4.3

1.1

.9

3.9

3.5

6.8

Justification by government

Mean

5.4

3.9

5.5

4.7

4.6

3.3

3.5

5.8

6.6

3.6

3.6

4.0

SD

2.7

3.1

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

1.9

2.1

2.5

2.6

2.7

% DK

6.1

4.0

5.9

5.6

1.1

1.2

1.7

5.1

6.1

1.4

1.7

3.4

Participation in deliberation

Mean

6.3

6.6

6.7

7.3

6.7

6.6

5.5

6.9

7.2

6.5

6.2

5.6

SD

2.4

2.5

2.3

2.5

2.2

2.4

2.6

1.9

2.0

2.6

2.3

2.8

% DK

5.2

4.2

5.4

8.3

1.0

1.1

6.9

1.5

.8

3.8

6.7

6.6

Responsible government

Mean

5.6

4.6

6.5

5.2

5.1

4.8

5.5

6.3

6.2

5.3

5.3

5.0

SD

2.3

2.7

2.4

2.7

2.1

2.6

2.6

1.6

1.9

2.3

2.5

2.2

% DK

4.5

3.1

4.4

9.6

1.6

1.1

5.3

1.4

.9

4.5

5.8

8.8

Rule of law

Mean

6.3

4.9

5.9

5.7

6.7

3.5

3.3

6.7

8.1

3.9

3.0

3.0

SD

2.8

2.8

3.0

2.8

2.9

2.8

2.5

2.2

2.0

2.7

2.3

2.7

% DK

5.4

5.0

6.7

4.9

1.0

1.2

4.0

2.4

.9

2.9

3.2

5.0

Minority rights

Mean

6.8

6.5

6.6

5.7

5.9

4.6

5.1

6.8

7.3

6.1

3.9

3.9

SD

2.2

2.7

2.4

2.9

2.2

2.5

2.6

1.7

1.9

2.3

2.5

2.7

% DK

5.1

1.8

4.2

5.3

.7

1.0

5.5

1.1

.9

7.1

2.7

11.1

Press freedom

Mean

7.7

6.5

7.8

8.0

7.7

6.1

6.1

7.9

8.6

7.7

6.7

4.7

SD

2.2

2.9

2.1

2.3

2.2

2.9

2.7

1.7

1.6

2.4

2.1

2.9

% DK

5.4

5.2

3.3

7.3

.8

1.6

5.0

.9

.8

2.7

4.2

8.2

Media reliability

Mean

6.0

4.9

6.8

6.5

6.0

4.6

5.6

6.2

7.2

5.9

5.9

4.3

SD

2.6

2.7

2.3

2.4

2.2

2.6

2.5

1.9

2.0

2.6

2.2

2.6

% DK

5.8

4.4

4.6

6.6

.8

1.1

3.5

1.2

1.0

2.7

6.3

6.6

Protection against poverty

Mean

5.3

3.3

5.3

3.8

4.0

2.6

2.6

5.6

6.3

3.0

2.6

2.8

SD

2.8

3.1

3.0

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.4

2.4

2.2

2.5

% DK

8.6

5.7

6.3

4.8

.7

1.0

3.7

1.3

1.5

2.9

2.0

5.2

Reduction income differences

Mean

4.9

3.6

5.0

3.6

4.9

2.8

2.8

5.5

6.3

3.0

3.0

3.1

SD

2.6

3.2

2.9

2.7

2.5

2.4

2.2

1.9

2.0

2.4

2.6

2.6

% DK

7.5

3.5

5.0

5.6

1.4

1.2

2.8

1.9

1.8

3.3

2.1

5.4

Direct participation

Mean

5.5

5.3

7.1

3.6

6.1

4.0

4.3

4.8

6.8

4.9

3.7

3.7

SD

3.1

2.9

2.6

3.1

2.8

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.6

2.9

2.7

2.7

% DK

6.2

3.0

3.0

6.2

.8

1.2

3.8

2.1

1.3

3.7

5.8

7.1

Freedom of expression

Mean tolerant

7.0

6.4

7.3

7.6

7.7

6.0

5.4

7.5

7.9

6.7

6.4

4.8

SD tolerant

2.3

2.5

2.1

2.3

1.9

2.5

2.5

1.8

1.8

2.4

2.1

2.5

% DK tolerant

3.9

3.9

4.7

3.7

.6

1.3

8.0

.6

.6

2.8

7.0

8.3

Mean protect

5.1

6.0

4.6

4.2

5.1

4.7

5.7

5.2

5.1

5.3

5.3

5.0

SD Protect

2.7

2.5

2.3

2.9

2.4

2.6

2.0

2.5

2.9

2.7

2.2

2.1

% DK protect

4.0

5.7

3.4

4.4

.4

.8

2.5

1.9

2.1

1.5

2.3

10.8

Responsiveness

Mean mandate

4.7

3.7

4.4

4.2

4.3

3.5

3.6

5.1

5.0

4.0

3.4

3.6

SD mandate

2.4

2.6

2.4

2.4

2.3

2.5

2.3

2.0

1.9

2.5

2.5

2.5

% DK mandate

4.7

4.8

5.5

5.2

1.3

.8

4.2

1.5

1.3

3.0

4.3

6.7

Mean trustee

5.8

7.3

5.7

5.8

5.8

5.8

5.5

6.1

6.6

5.7

5.9

5.4

SD trustee

2.0

1.9

2.0

2.3

2.1

2.4

1.9

1.8

1.8

2.2

2.3

2.4

% DK trustee

3.9

2.4

4.3

7.5

3.5

1.2

2.4

3.5

2.0

2.8

1.6

9.1

Power-sharing

Mean maj.

7.3

4.9

4.3

2.1

2.3

2.3

3.6

2.4

5.2

2.8

5.1

6.0

SD maj.

2.1

3.0

2.3

3.0

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.6

2.0

2.9

2.2

3.0

% DK maj.

9.4

1.3

4.1

5.7

1.3

2.4

.9

.6

1.4

3.5

8.3

3.6

Mean consens.

4.1

7.1

6.8

9.0

8.7

7.6

8.1

8.8

6.2

8.0

5.0

6.2

SD consens.

2.5

2.2

2.1

1.9

1.7

2.4

2.0

1.7

1.9

2.1

2.1

2.9

% DK consens.

4.4

3.8

5.4

8.2

.8

1.0

5.8

.7

1.3

2.9

5.4

8.6

N

2,227

2,014

2,620

2,482

750

960

2,109

1,838

1,614

1,879

2,140

2,461

(p.360) (p.361)

SE

SI

SK

UA

XK

EUR

Free elections

Mean

9.0

7.0

7.1

3.3

3.4

7.0

SD

1.6

2.7

2.6

2.8

3.2

3.0

% DK

1.8

3.4

1.5

3.9

4.0

3.6

Differentiated offer parties

Mean

6.9

4.8

5.9

3.9

4.3

5.5

SD

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

3.2

2.6

% DK

1.6

3.5

1.5

6.4

5.6

6.0

Parties free to criticize

Mean

8.7

7.1

7.2

5.8

5.6

7.4

SD

1.7

2.4

2.4

3.1

3.3

2.5

% DK

2.9

3.6

1.5

3.2

6.1

4.5

Retrospective accountability

Mean

7.3

5.5

6.0

4.0

2.7

5.5

SD

2.4

2.8

2.7

3.4

3.0

3.1

% DK

3.2

2.4

1.4

6.7

4.6

6.1

Justification by government

Mean

6.9

4.1

4.3

2.8

3.1

4.6

SD

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.6

3.0

2.8

% DK

6.4

1.6

2.3

5.5

7.9

3.8

Participation in deliberation

Mean

6.7

6.2

6.9

6.0

4.7

6.5

SD

2.4

2.6

2.5

3.1

3.3

2.5

% DK

2.6

3.0

1.3

3.5

5.8

5.8

Responsible government

Mean

6.3

5.3

6.0

4.9

4.6

5.6

SD

2.1

2.5

2.3

2.5

3.0

2.4

% DK

2.7

3.0

1.9

6.4

3.9

13.4

Rule of law

Mean

7.7

3.5

3.0

1.7

2.6

4.9

SD

2.5

2.8

2.6

2.3

2.9

3.2

% DK

3.1

2.8

1.9

3.4

5.9

4.2

Minority rights

Mean

7.5

7.5

7.2

4.2

6.3

6.2

SD

2.1

2.3

2.4

2.7

3.8

2.7

% DK

2.5

3.4

1.2

14.1

2.3

6.9

Press freedom

Mean

8.7

7.2

6.9

5.4

5.2

7.2

SD

1.8

2.4

2.5

3.0

3.4

2.6

% DK

1.7

2.8

1.8

4.4

7.0

3.4

Media reliability

Mean

7.4

6.0

5.6

4.5

4.6

5.9

SD

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.8

3.0

2.6

% DK

2.1

3.5

1.6

7.8

4.8

4.2

Protection against poverty

Mean

6.2

3.0

3.4

1.8

2.1

3.9

SD

2.8

2.6

2.7

2.3

2.6

2.9

% DK

2.8

2.8

1.8

4.6

5.7

2.3

Reduction income differences

Mean

6.0

3.2

3.5

1.9

2.5

3.9

SD

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.3

2.8

2.8

% DK

2.8

3.2

1.7

4.1

8.5

4.1

Direct participation

Mean

6.7

6.4

5.0

3.0

3.3

4.9

SD

2.8

2.7

3.0

2.8

3.2

3.2

% DK

2.5

2.6

1.6

5.5

5.4

5.6

Freedom of expression

Mean tolerant

7.8

6.1

6.6

5.7

5.5

6.8

SD tolerant

2.1

2.6

2.3

2.7

3.0

2.5

% DK tolerant

1.2

4.9

2.8

7.3

6.6

4.4

Mean protect

5.1

4.8

7.3

4.4

3.8

5.2

SD protect

2.7

2.4

2.1

3.0

2.9

2.7

% DK protect

1.5

4.4

.4

4.0

5.5

.9

Responsiveness

Mean mandate

5.2

3.7

4.3

3.1

3.3

4.1

SD mandate

2.3

2.5

2.7

2.6

3.0

2.6

% DK mandate

5.0

3.9

1.7

6.2

5.9

6.6

Mean trustee

7.0

6.2

6.2

5.6

5.4

6.2

SD trustee

1.8

2.3

2.5

2.7

2.6

2.2

% DK trustee

6.3

1.6

2.0

4.7

3.2

.5

Power-sharing

Mean maj.

4.9

2.8

4.7

5.8

3.1

4.8

SD maj.

3.0

2.8

2.5

3.1

3.3

3.1

% DK maj.

4.6

1.9

1.4

6.9

5.5

1.2

Mean consens.

7.3

8.3

6.9

6.4

7.5

7.4

SD consens.

2.2

2.3

2.1

2.7

2.8

2.6

% DK consens.

3.3

3.6

1.3

7.9

4.9

8.1

N

1,830

1,229

1,839

2,178

1,270

54,673

(p.362) (p.363)

Table A9.1 Determinants of evaluations and conceptions of liberal democracy: unstandardized regression coefficients of final sem-model

evaluations

Coeff unstand

SE

z

conceptions

Coeff unstand

SE

z

conceptions

evaluations

- low

.090

.067

1.34

- low

−.034

.003

−10.84

- medium

.775

.043

17.83

- medium

−.019

.003

−7.23

- high

1.290

.045

28.67

- high

.002

.003

.53

Inst trust

[*]

.765

.007

105.22

education

education

[*]

−.033

.005

−6.57

- low

.012

.002

6.64

- medium

.027

.001

20.64

- high

.048

.001

33.79

Pol interest

- low

.032

.002

13.46

- medium

.039

.002

20.18

- high

.059

.002

27.01

Over-report

[*]

.027

.001

50.61

socjustice

- low

.463

.005

91.35

- medium

.465

.004

124.04

- high

.396

.004

91.51

_const

_cons

- low

.324

.041

7.82

- low

.065

.008

7.8

- medium

.679

.025

27.22

- medium

.005

.006

.92

- high

1.234

.023

53.77

- high

−.085

.007

−11.99

R2

R2

- low

.14

- low

.43

- medium

.18

- medium

.46

- high

.27

- high

.44

Discr. test of model vs. saturated: chi2(12) = 325.47, Prob > chi2 = 0.0000 covariance between residuals evaluations/conceptions: low = .11***; medium = .05***; high = −.01

(p.364)

Table A9.2 Determinants of evaluations and meaning of social justice: unstandardized regression coefficients of final sem-model

coeff

SE

z

coeff

SE

z

evaluations

unstand

conceptions

unstand

conceptions

evaluations

- cee

−1.171

.048

−24.15

- cee

−.023

.002

−9.81

- south

−.513

.083

−6.21

- south

−.024

.004

−6.26

- continental

−.807

.080

−10.10

- continental

−.054

.004

−14.23

- liberal

.083

.126

.66

- liberal

−.024

.005

−4.71

- scandinavian

.201

.106

1.89

- scandinavian

−.046

.005

−8.98

Instit trust

[*]

1.046

.011

92.28

education

education

[*]

−.058

.008

−7.56

- cee

−.035

.002

−17.36

- south

−.017

.002

−6.90

- continental

−.053

.003

−18.86

- liberal

−.026

.003

−8.01

- scandinavian

−.049

.003

−15.60

Pol interest

[*]

−.012

.002

−7.39

Over-report

[*]

.009

.001

11.96

Liberal dem

- cee

.838

.007

112.18

- south

.866

.011

78.82

- continent

.754

.012

63.31

- liberal

.891

.013

66.35

- scandinavian

.764

.014

54.06

_cons

_cons

- cee

−1.073

.040

−26.55

- cee

.230

.009

25.63

- south

−.979

.059

−16.52

- south

.204

.011

18.63

- continental

−.009

.043

−.22

- continental

.264

.010

26.58

- liberal

.180

.064

2.82

- liberal

.147

.011

12.89

- scandinavian

.256

.052

4.95

- scandinavian

.254

.013

20.27

R2

R2

- cee

.21

- cee

.46

- south

.14

- south

.47

- continental

.28

- continental

.34

- liberal

.10

- liberal

.49

- scandinavian

.12

- scandinavian

.24

1) Discr. test of model vs. saturated: chi2(26) = 249.0, Prob > chi2 = 0.0000 Covariance of residuals evaluation/conception: cee = .13***; south = .12***; continental = .23***; liberal = .14; scandinavian = .18***

(p.365)

Table A9.3 Determinants of evaluations and meaning of social justice: standardized and unstandardized regression coefficients of final sem-model

coeff

z

coeff

Z

evaluations

unstand

SE

conceptions

unstand

SE

conceptions

evaluations

- low-no-dd

−.236

.023

−10.1

- low-no-dd

−.131

.022

−5.97

- low-dd

.131

.028

4.75

- low-dd

.084

.023

3.67

- high-no-dd

−.063

.029

−2.21

- high-no-dd

−.133

.017

−7.94

- high-dd

.275

.042

6.56

- high-dd

.022

.040

.57

Inst trust

- low-no-dd

.733

.027

27.12

- low-dd

.937

.034

27.22

- high-no-dd

1.077

.028

39.14

- high-dd

.676

.038

17.76

education

education

- low-no-dd

−.076

.026

−2.92

- low-no-dd

−.028

.016

−1.72

- low-dd

.044

.036

1.24

- low-dd

−.098

.023

−4.35

- high-no-dd

−.311

.026

−11.78

- high-no-dd

−.198

.018

−11.05

- high-dd

−.215

.037

−5.76

- high-dd

−.095

.026

−3.7

Pol interest

Pol interest

- low-no-dd

−.167

.019

−8.99

- low-no-dd

−.046

.012

−3.83

- low-dd

−.120

.027

−4.45

- low-dd

.003

.017

.19

- high-no-dd

−.322

.018

−18.12

- high-no-dd

−.201

.013

−15.6

- high-dd

−.117

.026

−4.56

- high-dd

−.089

.019

−4.79

Over-report

8.5

[*]

−.011

.004

−2.72

−2.32

libdem

8.22

- low-no-dd

2.970

.051

58.78

1.05

- low-dd

3.109

.054

57.22

- high-no-dd

2.475

.050

49.98

- high-dd

2.479

.077

32.31

_cons

_cons

- low-no-dd

1.720

.202

- low-no-dd

6.993

.052

135.66

- low-dd

−.583

.251

- low-dd

7.243

.070

103.37

- high-no-dd

2.057

.250

- high-no-dd

8.217

.058

141.68

- high-dd

.380

.363

- high-dd

7.948

.121

65.81

R2

R2

- low-no-dd

.04

- low-no-dd

.21

- low-dd

.09

- low-dd

.27

- high-no-dd

.08

- high-no-dd

.03

- high-dd

.12

- high-dd

.17

1) Discr. test of model vs. saturated: chi2(14) = 90.08, Prob > chi2 = 0.0000. Covariance of residuals evaluation/conception: low-no dd = 2.13***; low-dd = –.649**; high-no-dd = 2.71***; high-dd = .31ns

(p.366)
Appendix C Additional tables and figures

FIGURE A11.1 Legitimacy scales for single items—product measures

(p.367)
Appendix C Additional tables and figures

FIGURE A11.2 Legitimacy scales for single items—proportion measures

(p.368)
Appendix C Additional tables and figures

FIGURE A11.3 Legitimacy scales for single items—balance measures

(p.369)

Table A12.1 Variable definitions

Individual-level variables

(1) socio-demographic

Age—(years of age: 0 = youngest; 1 = oldest)

Years of education—(years of formal education: 0 = lowest; 1 = highest)

Religion—(subjective religiousness: 0 = not at all; 1 = very religious; originally 11-point scale, from 0 to 10)

Gender—(1= male; 2 = female)

(2) “short-term” factors

satisfaction with economy (stfeco)—recoded: 0 = extremely dissatisfied; 1 = extremely satisfied

(B21: “satisfaction with the state of the economy”)

satisfaction with government (stfgov)—recoded: 0 = extremely dissatisfied; 1 = extremely satisfied

(B22: “satisfaction with the government”)

Pid—party identification, recoded: 0 = no; 1 = yes

(B18: Is there a particular political party you feel closer to than all the other parties)

Winlos—Respondent is a voter of an incumbent (1) or opposition party (0)

(3) “long-term” factors

Subjective SES—subjective socio-economic status, recoded: 0 = low; 1 = high)

(D38: “placement in society” 0 = bottom; 10 = top of society)

Social trust– (“most people can be trusted”), recoded: 0 = no; 1 = high

(A3: 0 = one should be careful; 10 = most people can be trusted

Self-expression opportunities scale—a simple additive scale composed of two variables, recoded into 0 = low self-expression; 1 = high self-expression

dscrgrp (C16: R being a member of a group discriminated against; high = no)

dclvlf (D16: R feel free to decide how to live; high = yes)

Political involvement scale—a simple additive scale composed of two variables; recoded: 0 = low institutional learning experience; 1 = high

vote (B9: participation in last election) and

polintr (B1: interest in politics)

Political trust scale—a simple additive scale composed of three variables recoded: 0 = low trust in political institutions; 1 = high

trstprl (B2: trust in parliament)

trstplt (B5: trust in politicians)

trstprt (B6: trust in political parties)

Civic engagement scale—a simple additive scale composed of three variables recoded: 0 = low civic engagement; 1 = high

composed of three variables:

wrkorg (B13: R worked for an organization last 12 months)

pbldmn (B16: R taken part in public demonstration last 12 months)

bctprd (B17: R boycotted certain products last 12 months)

(4) Contextual macro factors

GDPpc’000—GDP per capita in a country in thousands $, ranging from 4,000 to 100,000 (World Bank, 2012)

GINI—income inequalities in a country:

GINI 1—ranging from .20 to .27

GINI 2—ranging from .28 to .32

GINI 3—above .32

Agedem—years of democratic rule in a country, ranging from 8 to 70 (Polity)

Change in GDP—change in % from 2008 to 2012 in GDP PPP, ranging from −9 to +15 (World Bank)

change in GDP 1 = from −9 to −3 percent

change in GDP 2 = from −2.99 to 0 percent

change in GDP 3 = bigger than 0 percent

Change in unemployment—change in % of unemployment from 2008 to 2012, ranging from −2 to 14 (World Bank)

(p.370)

Table A13.1 Example of transformation of OLS regression models (attribute: free and fair elections)

Country

Original coefficients:

Transformed coefficients

β‎1 importance

β‎2 evaluation

β‎3 interaction

β‎1 importance

β‎2 evaluation

β‎3 interaction

AL

−0.211**

−0.351*

0.0858***

−1

−1

1

BE

0.0368

0.178***

0.0147**

0

1

1

BG

−0.151***

0.0909

0.0218**

−1

0

1

CH

0.0368

0.176*

0.0169

0

1

0

CY

−0.396**

−0.127

0.0550**

−1

0

1

CZ

−0.132*

0.162

0.0315***

−1

0

1

DE

0.0535

0.303***

0.0116

0

1

0

DK

0.0814

0.173

0.0233*

0

0

1

EE

−0.0555

0.235***

0.0191**

0

1

1

ES

−0.0295

0.408***

−0.00909

0

1

0

FI

0.0687

0.349**

0.00653

0

1

0

FR

0.0128

0.0717

0.0312***

0

0

1

GB

0.0963

0.333***

0.00605

0

1

0

HU

−0.280***

0.239**

0.0241**

−1

1

1

IE

−0.0841

0.253***

0.0172*

0

1

1

IL

0.0287

0.423***

−0.00818

0

1

0

IS

0.344**

0.690***

−0.0335

1

1

0

IT

0.00739

0.226*

0.00659

0

1

0

LT

0.0179

0.00674

0.0258***

0

0

1

NL

0.187**

0.537***

−0.0220**

1

1

−1

NO

0.0715

0.249*

0.00594

0

1

0

PL

−0.0563

0.184*

0.0226**

0

1

1

PT

−0.136

0.0940

0.0127

0

0

0

RU

−0.137***

0.183**

0.0202**

−1

1

1

SE

−0.181

0.0534

0.0393**

0

0

1

SI

0.0573

0.302***

−0.00611

0

1

0

SK

0.0698

0.205**

0.00338

0

1

0

UA

−0.131***

−0.0216

0.0310***

−1

0

1

XK

−0.0666

0.251**

0.00712

0

1

0

(p.371) In the transformation of OLS regression models into a new matrix, coefficients have been recoded as follows:

  • a positive and significant coefficient has been recoded as 1

  • a negative and significant coefficient has been recoded as −1

  • a non-significant coefficient has been recoded as 0

Table A13.2 Variables employed

Variable

Mean

Std. Dev.

Min

Max

N

Individual level

Satisfaction with democracy

5.2

2.6

0

10

52, 602

Age

48.3

18.6

15

103

54 ,540

Male

0.5

0.5

0

1

54 ,656

Education

3.2

1.3

1

5

54, 309

Political interest

2.3

0.9

1

4

54, 411

Ideology (left–right)

5.2

2.3

0

10

46, 457

Liberal democracy legitimacy index

0.8

0.2

0

1

54 ,134

Social democracy legitimacy index

0.6

0.3

0

1

53, 794

Direct democracy legitimacy index

0.7

0.3

0

1

52, 526

Political trust

20.5

11.1

0

50

54, 312

Satisfaction with the government

2.0

0.8

0

10

53, 127

Voted for incumbent party

4.0

2.6

0

1

54, 673

Satisfaction with the economy

0.2

0.4

0

10

53, 652

Satisfaction with life

4.0

2.6

0

10

54, 351

WB governance indicators

6.8

2.4

1

3

54, 673

Change in growth rates 2005/2008–2009/2012

−3.9

2.1

−8.0

−1.1

54 ,673

(p.372)