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How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy$

Mónica Ferrín and Hanspeter Kriesi

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198766902

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766902.001.0001

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(p.331) Appendix B Source questionnaire of the democracy module in ESS Round 6

(p.331) Appendix B Source questionnaire of the democracy module in ESS Round 6

Source:
How Europeans View and Evaluate Democracy
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Now some questions about democracy. Later on I will ask you about how democracy is working in [country]. First, however, I want you to think instead about how important you think different things are for democracy in general. There are no right or wrong answers so please just tell me what you think.

ASK ALL

CARD 37 Using this card, please tell me how important you think it is for democracy in generalREAD OUT…

Not at all important for democracy in general55

Extremely56 important for democracy in general

(Don’t know)

E157

…that national elections58 are free and fair59?

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E2

…that voters discuss politics with people they know before deciding how to vote?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E3

…that different political parties60 offer clear alternatives to one another?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E4

…that opposition parties6161 are free to6262 criticise6363 the government?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E5

…that the media are free to6464 criticise6565 the government?

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.332)

STILL CARD 37 And still thinking generally rather than about [country], how important do you think it is for democracy in generalREAD OUT…

Not at all important for democracy in general66

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t know)

E6

…that the media provide citizens with reliable67 information to judge68 the government?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E7

…that the rights of minority groups are protected?

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E8

…that citizens have the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E9

….that immigrants69 only get the right to vote in national elections70 once they become citizens?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E10

…that the courts treat71 everyone the same72?

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E11

…that the courts are able to stop the government acting beyond its authority?

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.333) STILL CARD 37 And still thinking generally rather than about [country], how important do you think it is for democracy in generalREAD OUT…

Not at all important for democracy in general73

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t know)

E12

…that governing parties are punished in elections74 when they have done a bad job?

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E13

…that the government protects all citizens against poverty?

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E14

…that the government explains its decisions to voters?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E15

…that the government takes measures to reduce differences in income levels?

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.334) (STILL CARD 37) And how important do you think it is for democracy in generalREAD OUT…

Not at all important for democracy in general75

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t know)

E16

…that politicians take into account the views of other European76 governments before making decisions?

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

Now some questions about the same topics, but this time about how you think democracy is working in [country] today77. Again, there are no right or wrong answers, so please just tell me what you think.

(p.335) CARD 38 Using this card, please tell me to what extent you think each of the following statements applies in [country]. 0 means you think the statement does not apply at all and 10 means you think it applies completely78. READ OUT EACH STATEMENT AND CODE IN THE GRID.

Does not apply at all

Applies completely

(Don’t know)

E17

National elections79 in [country] are free and fair80.

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E18

Voters in [country] discuss politics with people they know before deciding how to vote.

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E19

Different political parties81 in [country] offer clear alternatives to one another.

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E20

Opposition parties82 in [country] are free to83 criticise84 the government85.

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E21

The media in [country] are free to86 criticise87 the government.

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.336) (STILL CARD 38) Using the same card please tell me to what extent you think each of these statements applies in [country]. READ OUT EACH STATEMENT AND CODE IN THE GRID.

Does not apply at all

Applies completely

(Don’t know)

E22

The media in [country] provide citizens with reliable88 information to judge89 the government.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E23

The rights of minority groups in [country] are protected.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E24

Citizens in [country] have the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E25

The courts in [country] treat90 everyone the same91.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(STILL CARD 38) And using the same card please tell me to what extent you think each of these statements applies in [country]. READ OUT EACH STATEMENT AND CODE IN THE GRID.

Does not apply at all

Applies completely

(Don’t know)

E26

Governing parties in [country] are punished in elections92 when they have done a bad job.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E27

The government in [country] protects all citizens against poverty.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E28

The government in [country] explains its decisions to voters.

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01

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03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E29

The government in [country] takes measures to reduce differences in income levels.

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01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.337) (STILL CARD 38) And to what extent does this statement apply in [country]?

Does not apply at all

Applies completely

(Don’t know)

E30

Politicians in [country] take into account the views of other European93 governments before making decisions.

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.338) CARD 39

At the next questions, I’ll first ask you to choose between two options. Then I’ll ask how important you think your choice is for democracy in general. Finally, I’ll ask you to think about this issue in [country] today. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers, so please just tell me what you think.

E31 (CARD 39) There are differing opinions on whether or not everyone should be free to94 express their political views openly in a democracy, even if they are extreme95. Which one of the statements on this card describes what you think is best for democracy in general?

INTERVIEWER: CODE ONE ANSWER ONLY.

IF CODE 1, 2 OR 8 NOT MENTIONED EXPLICITLY, PROBE ONCE: ‘PLEASE TRY TO CHOOSE AN ANSWER FROM THIS CARD THAT BEST MATCHES YOUR OPINION’.

ASK IF CODE 1 AT E31

E32 CARD 40 How important do you think it is for democracy in general that everyone is free to express their political views openly, even if they are extreme? Please use this card.

Not at all important for democracy in general

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.339) ASK IF CODE 1, 5 OR 8 AT E31

E33CARD 41 Using this card, to what extent do you think everyone in [country] today is free to express their political views openly, even if they are extreme?

Not at all

Completely

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

GO TO E36

ASK IF CODE 2 AT E31

E34CARD 40 How important do you think it is for democracy in general that those who hold extreme political views are prevented from expressing them openly? Please use this card.

Not at all important for democracy in general

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E35 CARD 41 Using this card, to what extent do you think those who hold extreme political views in [country] today are prevented from expressing them openly?

Not at all

Completely

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

ASK ALL

E36CARD 42 Sometimes the government disagrees with what most people think is best for the country. Which one of the statements on this card describes what you think is best for democracy in general?

INTERVIEWER: CODE ONE ANSWER ONLY.

IF CODE 1, 2 OR 8 NOT MENTIONED EXPLICITLY, PROBE ONCE: ‘PLEASE TRY TO CHOOSE AN ANSWER FROM THIS CARD THAT BEST MATCHES YOUR OPINION’.

Appendix B Source questionnaire of the democracy module in ESS Round 6

(p.340) ASK IF CODE 1 AT E36

E37CARD 43 How important do you think it is for democracy in general that the government changes its planned policies in response to what most people think? Please use this card.

Not at all important for democracy in general

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

ASK IF CODE 1, 5 OR 8 AT E36

E38CARD 44 Using this card, please tell me how often you think the government in [country] today changes its planned policies in response to what most people think?

Never

Always

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

GO TO E41

ASK IF CODE 2 AT E36

E39CARD 43 How important do you think it is for democracy in general that the government sticks to its planned policies regardless of what most people think? Please use this card.

Not at all important for democracy in general

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

(p.341) E40CARD 44 Using this card, please tell me how often you think the government in [country] today sticks to its planned policies regardless of what most people think?

Never

Always

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

ASK ALL

E41CARD 45 The government in some countries is formed by97 a single party; in other countries by two or more parties in coalition. Which option on this card describes what you think is best for democracy in general?

INTERVIEWER: CODE ONE ANSWER ONLY.

IF CODE 1, 2 OR 8 NOT MENTIONED EXPLICITLY, PROBE ONCE: ‘PLEASE TRY TO CHOOSE AN ANSWER FROM THIS CARD THAT BEST MATCHES YOUR OPINION’.

Appendix B Source questionnaire of the democracy module in ESS Round 6

(p.342) ASK IF CODE 1 AT E41

E42CARD 46 How important do you think it is for democracy in general that the government is formed by a single party? Please use this card.

Not at all important for democracy in general

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

E43CARD 47 Now for the last question on this topic. Using this card, please tell me how often you think the government in [country] is formed by a single party?

Never

Always

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

GO TO END TIME SECTION E

ASK IF CODE 2 AT E41

E44CARD 46 How important do you think it is for democracy in general that the government is formed by two or more parties in coalition? Please use this card.

Not at all important for democracy in general

Extremely important for democracy in general

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

ASK IF CODE 2, 5 OR 8 AT E41

E45CARD 47 Now for the last question on this topic. Using this card, please tell me how often you think the government in [country] is formed by two or more parties in coalition?

Never

Always

(Don’t Know)

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

88

ENTER END TIME OF SECTION E: □ □ □ □ (Use 24 hour clock)

(END time for CAPI countries only)

Notes:

(55) The full scale and the end labels MUST appear on the showcard

(56) ‘extremely’ in the sense of ‘an end point on the scale where nothing can go beyond it. This might also be represented by ‘completely’, ‘fully’, ‘absolutely’, ‘totally’, etc. This applies to all references to ‘extremely’ throughout section E.

(57) For items E1 – E16 and items E31, E32, E34, E36, E37, E39, E41, E42 and E44, countries should ensure that their translation does not make reference to country-specific terms.

(58) ‘national elections’ refers to national elections for a country’s primary legislative assembly. Under no circumstances should the actual name of a national parliament be included in this question

(59) Both senses – ‘free and fair’ – MUST be expressed in all translations; this can be done by using one or two adjectives or by using an idiomatic expression, if this exists.

(60) Countries should refer to ‘candidates’ instead of or in addition to ‘political parties’ if this is more appropriate

(61) ‘opposition parties’ in the sense of ‘parties which are in the legislature but are not part of the government’; if a country does not have ‘opposition parties’ they should refer instead to ‘political parties’.

(62) ‘are free to’ in the sense of ‘are allowed to’

(63) ‘criticise’ in the sense of ‘contest or dispute’ rather than ‘being able to disrupt’

(64) ‘are free to’ in the sense of ‘are allowed to’

(65) ‘criticise’ in the sense of ‘contest’ or ‘dispute’ rather than ‘being able to disrupt’

(66) The full scale and the end labels MUST appear on the showcard

(67) ‘reliable’ in the sense of ‘accurate’

(68) ‘judge’ in the sense of ‘to assess’ or ‘evaluate’ any aspect of the government

(69) ‘immigrants’ in the sense of ‘people who come to live in one country from another country’

(70) ‘national elections’ refers to national elections for the country’s primary legislative assembly. Under no circumstances should the actual name of a national parliament be included in this question

(71) ‘treat’ in the sense of ‘deal with’

(72) ‘the same’ in the sense of ‘exactly the same way in the same situation’

(73) The full scale and the end labels MUST appear on the showcard

(74) ‘Punished in elections’ in the sense of ‘getting fewer votes than in the previous election’

(75) The full scale and the end labels MUST appear on the showcard

(76) ‘European’ in the sense of geographically, not only EU countries

(77) For items E17 – E30 and E33, E35, E40, E43 and E45, country specific terms can be used where appropriate, whilst ensuring functional equivalence with the British English source questionnaire.

(78) ‘completely’ in the sense of ‘an ending point on the scale where nothing can go beyond it. This might be represented also by ‘extremely’, ‘fully’, ‘absolutely’, ‘totally’, etc. This applies throughout section E.

(79) ‘National elections’ refers to national elections for the country’s primary legislative assembly

(80) Both senses – ‘free and fair’ – MUST be expressed in all translations; this can be done by using one or two adjectives or by using an idiomatic expression, if this exists in your language.

(81) Countries should refer to ‘candidates’ instead of or in addition to ‘political parties’ if this is more appropriate

(82) ‘opposition parties’ in the sense of ‘parties which are in the legislature but are not part of the government’; if a country does not have ‘opposition parties’ they should refer instead to ‘political parties’

(83) ‘are free to’ in the sense of ‘are allowed to’

(84) ‘criticise’ in the sense of ‘contest or dispute’ rather than ‘being able to disrupt’

(85) A country specific word for ‘the government’ may be used here if appropriate. This applies to E20, E21, E27, E28, E29, E38, E40, E43 and E45.

(86) ‘are free to’ in the sense of ‘are allowed to’

(87) ‘criticise’ in the sense of ‘contest or dispute’ rather than ‘being able to disrupt’

(88) ‘reliable’ in the sense of ‘accurate’

(89) ‘judge’ in the sense of ‘assess’ or ‘evaluate’ any aspect of governments

(90) ‘treat’ in the sense of ‘deal with’

(91) ‘the same’ in the sense of ‘exactly the same way in the same situation’

(92) ‘Punished in elections’ in the sense of ‘getting fewer votes than in the previous election’

(93) ‘European’ in the sense of geographically, not only EU countries

(94) ‘are free to’ in the sense of ‘are allowed to’

(95) ‘extreme’ in the sense of ‘far from moderate’

(96) ‘stick to’ in the sense of ‘not change’

(97) ‘formed by’ in the sense of ‘made up of’