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Lectures on LightNonlinear and Quantum Optics using the Density Matrix$
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Stephen C. Rand

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198757450

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198757450.001.0001

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Coherent Interactions of Fields with Atoms

Coherent Interactions of Fields with Atoms

(p.111) 5 Coherent Interactions of Fields with Atoms
Lectures on Light

Stephen C. Rand

Oxford University Press

Chapter 5 begins the systematic application of the density matrix to describe optical interactions. Stationary two-and three-level atoms interacting with a traveling wave are compared to show that the presence of additional levels changes the saturation behavior of atoms. Then motion of the atoms is introduced and the phenomena of spatial and frequency-domain hole-burning are analyzed. Special effects due to standing waves, such as the light shift, are covered in this section. Next, tri-level coherence is considered, to extend the concept of coherences to two-photon transitions or Zeeman interactions in folded 3- or Λ-systems. Higher order interactions are also analyzed. This includes four-wave mixing and pump–probe techniques which form the basis of common nonlinear laser spectroscopies. Quantum interference is covered as a prelude to the topic of electromagnetically induced transparency. Higher order coherent interactions are also treated using a diagrammatic calculation technique based on Feynman diagrams.

Keywords:   saturation, coherence, two-photon coherence, hole-burning, light shift, four-wave mixing, pump–probe spectroscopy, Feynman diagrams, quantum interference

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