Chapter 6 documents three major changes in the main political parties, and especially Labour. First, party policy converged during the 1990s towards a more right-wing set of positions. The two main parties now cover a far less extensive ideological range. Second, in both manifestos and party speeches group appeals to voters changed. Labour, and to a lesser extent the Conservatives, regularly referred to the working class in both speeches and policy documents in the past, but they now display little or no recognition of the working class, or class per se. Both parties have adopted more class-neutral terminology referring to families. Third, politicians are now drawn from a similar pool of highly educated, upper middle class people. All of these changes have combined to transform perceptions of the parties. The chapter shows that people now see the main parties as more similar in terms of policy, elites, and which class they represent.
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