Chapter 13 deals with trions. Made of three fermions, these particles are composite fermions. In this chapter, the relevant trion coordinates are first established. The trion creation operator is then constructed, with the trion seen as being an exciton interacting with an electron (or a hole), taking into account the symmetry of the trion wave function, which depends on whether the two identical carriers are in singlet or triplet spin configuration. The chapter then explains why trions are weakly coupled to photons and discusses photon absorption in the presence of electrons, and the fundamental many-body nature associated with the so-called trion line. Finally, the chapter derives the Pauli scattering associated with carrier exchange within a trion to open the route for composite fermion many-body effects.
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