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Mapping English Metaphor Through Time$

Wendy Anderson, Ellen Bramwell, and Carole Hough

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198744573

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744573.001.0001

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(p.281) Appendix: Mapping Metaphor Categories

(p.281) Appendix: Mapping Metaphor Categories

Source:
Mapping English Metaphor Through Time
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

1

THE EXTERNAL WORLD

1A

THE EARTH

1A01

The world, the earth

1A02

Region of the earth

1A03

Cardinal points

1A04

Land and islands

1A05

Landscape, high and low land

1A06

Level land and marshes

1A07

Wild and fertile land

1A08

Body of water

1A09

Rivers and streams

1A10

Sea

1A11

Lakes and pools

1A12

Ice

1A13

Tides, waves and flooding

1A14

Named regions of earth

1A15

Geological features

1A16

Minerals

1A17

Earth science

1A18

Universe and space

1A19

Celestial sphere

1A20

Sky

1A21

Heavenly body

1A22

Planets and satellites

1A23

Stars

1A24

Sun

1A25

Constellations and comets

1A26

Astronomy

1A27

Astrology

1A28

Atmosphere and weather

1B

LIFE

1B01

Life

1B02

Birth

1B03

Age

1B04

Biological sex

1B05

Absence of life

(p.282) 1B06

Biology

1B07

Biological processes

1B08

Natural habitats and taxonomies

1B09

The human body

1B10

Bodily shape and strength

1B11

Body parts

1B12

Skin

1B13

Hair

1B14

Bodily tissue

1B15

Bones, muscles and cartilage

1B16

Sense and speech organs

1B17

Internal organs

1B18

Digestive organs

1B19

Bodily secretion

1B20

Bodily excretion

1B21

Sex organs

1B22

Respiratory system

1B23

Vascular system

1B24

The brain and nervous system

1B25

Human anatomy

1B26

Death

1B27

Dead person

1B28

Manner of death

1B29

Cause of death

1B30

Killing

1B31

Burial and cremation

1B32

Mourning and obsequies

1C

HEALTH AND DISEASE

1C01

Health

1C02

Ill-health

1C03

Mental health

1C04

Healing and treatment

1D

PEOPLE

1D01

Humankind

1D02

Person

1D03

Male person

1D04

Female person

1D05

Baby and young person

1D06

Adult and middle-aged person

1D07

Old person

1D08

Races and nations

1E

ANIMALS

1E01

Animals

(p.283) 1E02

Animal categories, habitats and behaviour

1E03

Groups of animals

1E04

Animal bodies

1E05

Insects and other invertebrates

1E06

Fish

1E07

Amphibians

1E08

Reptiles

1E09

Birds

1E10

Classes of mammals

1E11

Felines

1E12

Canines

1E13

Other clawed mammals

1E14

Rhinoceroses and general ungulates

1E15

Horses and elephants

1E16

Pigs

1E17

Ruminants

1E18

Bats, aardvarks, flying lemurs and tree-shrews

1E19

Primates

1E20

Zoology and taxidermy

1F

PLANTS

1F01

Plants

1F02

Flowers and grasses

1F03

Trees and shrubs

1F04

Cacti, ferns, moss and algae

1F05

Cultivated plants

1F06

Weeds

1F07

Botany

1G

FOOD AND DRINK

1G01

Food and eating

1G02

Drinks and drinking

1G03

Farming

1G04

Hunting and fishing

1H

TEXTILES AND CLOTHING

1H01

Textiles

1H02

Clothing

1I

PHYSICAL SENSATION

1I01

Physical sensation

1I02

Sleep

1I03

Awake

1I04

Weariness

1I05

Invigoration

1I06

Sexual relations

1I07

Drug use

(p.284) 1I08

Poison

1I09

Touch

1I10

Taste

1I11

Smell

1I12

Sight

1I13

Hearing and noise

1I14

Cleanness

1I15

Dirtiness

1J

MATTER

1J01

Alchemy

1J02

Chemistry

1J03

Weight, heat and cold

1J04

Solidity and density

1J05

Lack of density

1J06

Granular texture

1J07

Fine and coarse texture

1J08

Strength

1J09

Weakness

1J10

Hardness

1J11

Softness

1J12

Unctuousness

1J13

Semi-fluidity

1J14

Liquid

1J15

Water

1J16

Humidity

1J17

Wetness

1J18

Leaking and outpouring

1J19

Flowing and floating

1J20

Dryness

1J21

Gas

1J22

Air

1J23

Physics and mechanics

1J24

Electromagnetism and atomic physics

1J25

Light

1J26

Flickering and glowing light

1J27

Illumination

1J28

Reflection

1J29

Natural light

1J30

Artificial light

1J31

Fireworks

1J32

Transparency and opacity

1J33

Darkness

1J34

Colour

(p.285) 1J35

Individual colours

1J36

Pattern and variegation

1J37

Good condition

1J38

Bad condition

1K

EXISTENCE AND CAUSATION

1K01

Existence and its attributes

1K02

Creation

1K03

Destruction

1K04

Causation

1K05

Chance

1K06

Occurrence

1L

SPACE

1L01

Space

1L02

Distance

1L03

Size and spatial extent

1L04

Shape

1L05

Place and position

1L06

Relative position

1L07

Direction

1M

TIME

1M01

Time

1M02

Duration in time

1M03

Occasion

1M04

Period of time

1M05

Day and evening

1M06

Night

1M07

Measurement of time and relative time

1M08

Suitability of time

1M09

Frequency

1M10

Change and permanence

1N

MOVEMENT

1N01

Movement

1N02

Types of movement

1N03

Progressive movement

1N04

Rate of movement and swift movement

1N05

Slow movement

1N06

Movement in a specific direction

1N07

Transference

1N08

Impulse

1N09

Impact

1N10

Immobility and restlessness

(p.286) 1O

ACTION

1O01

Operation and influence

1O02

Action

1O03

Preparation and undertaking

1O04

Repetition

1O05

Continuation

1O06

Execution and performance

1O07

Completion

1O08

Cessation

1O09

Inaction

1O10

Endeavour

1O11

Difficulty

1O12

Easiness

1O13

Restoration and recovery

1O14

Advantage

1O15

Safety

1O16

Prosperity and success

1O17

Disadvantage and harm

1O18

Adversity

1O19

Failure

1O20

Vigorous action and degrees of violence

1O21

Slow action and degrees of caution

1O22

Behaviour and conduct

1O23

Ability

1P

RELATIVE PROPERTIES

1P01

Relationship

1P02

Relevance

1P03

Correlation

1P04

Sameness

1P05

Contrast

1P06

Difference

1P07

Uniformity and stereotypicality

1P08

Variety

1P09

Similarity

1P10

Imitation

1P11

Equivalence

1P12

Accompaniment

1P13

Exemplification and specificity

1P14

Order

1P15

Disorder

1P16

Sequence

1P17

Number

1P18

Mathematics

1P19

Computing

1P20

Measurement

(p.287) 1P21

Measurement of length

1P22

Measurement of area

1P23

Measurement of volume

1P24

Measuring instrument

1P25

Measurement of weight

1P26

Quantity

1P27

Degree

1P28

Greatness and intensity

1P29

Sufficiency and abundance

1P30

Increase in quantity

1P31

Moderateness and smallness of quantity

1P32

Insufficiency

1P33

Decrease in quantity

1P34

Wholeness

1P35

Completeness

1P36

Incompleteness

1P37

Part–whole relationships

1Q

THE SUPERNATURAL

1Q01

Supernatural

1Q02

Deity

1Q03

Angel

1Q04

Devil

1Q05

Heaven

1Q06

Hell

2

THE MENTAL WORLD

2A

MENTAL CAPACITY

2A01

Mind

2A02

Intellect

2A03

Consciousness

2A04

Character and mood

2A05

Psychology

2A06

Thought

2A07

Perception and cognition

2A08

Imagination

2A09

Understanding

2A10

Cleverness

2A11

Wisdom

2A12

Reason and argument

2A13

Lack of understanding

2A14

Stupidity

2A15

Foolishness

2A16

Intellectual weakness

2A17

Foolish person

(p.288) 2A18

Intelligibility

2A19

Memory, commemoration and revocation

2A20

Knowledge and experience

2A21

Lack of knowledge

2A22

Truth and falsity

2A23

Secrecy and concealment

2A24

Belief and opinion

2A25

Disbelief and uncertainty

2A26

Expectation and prediction

2A27

Philosophy

2B

ATTENTION AND JUDGEMENT

2B01

Attention and inattention

2B02

Enquiry and discovery

2B03

Answer and argument

2B04

Judgement

2B05

Importance

2B06

Unimportance

2B07

Esteem

2B08

Contempt

2B09

Aesthetics and good taste

2B10

Tastelessness

2B11

Fashionableness

2B12

Beauty and ugliness

2C

GOODNESS AND BADNESS

2C01

Good

2C02

Bad

2D

EMOTION

2D01

Emotion

2D02

Strong emotion and lack of emotion

2D03

Excitement

2D04

Composure

2D05

Pleasure

2D06

Emotional suffering

2D07

Anger

2D08

Love and friendship

2D09

Hatred and hostility

2D10

Indifference

2D11

Pity and pitilessness

2D12

Jealousy

2D13

Gratitude and ingratitude

2D14

Pride

2D15

Humility

2D16

Fear

2D17

Courage

(p.289) 2E

WILL

2E01

Will and personal choice

2E02

Necessity and inclination

2E03

Willingness and desire

2E04

Intention and planning

2E05

Decision-making

2E06

Motivation, demotivation and persuasion

2F

POSSESSION

2F01

Possessing and lacking

2F02

Wealth

2F03

Poverty

2F04

Sharing

2F05

Obtaining

2F06

Loss

2F07

Retaining

2F08

Relinquishing

2F09

Giving

2F10

Taking and thieving

2F11

Providing and storing

2G

LANGUAGE

2G01

Language

2G02

Languages of the world

2G03

Speaking

2G04

Study of language

2G05

Naming

2G06

Expression of opinion

2G07

Refusal

2G08

Curse

3

THE SOCIAL WORLD

3A

SOCIETY AND THE COMMUNITY

3A01

Society

3A02

Kinship and relationship

3A03

Kinship group and family

3A04

Family members and genealogy

3A05

Marriage

3A06

Social communication and culture

3A07

Solitude and social isolation

3A08

Social attitudes

3A09

Social position

3A10

Social discord and harmony

3B

INHABITING AND DWELLING

3B01

Inhabiting and population

3B02

Buildings and inhabited places

(p.290) 3C

ARMED HOSTILITY

3C01

War and armed hostility

3C02

Military forces

3C03

Weapons and armour

3C04

Air and sea hostilities

3C05

Peace and absence of war

3D

AUTHORITY

3D01

Command and control

3D02

Rule and government

3D03

Politics

3D04

Political office

3D05

Authority, rebellion and freedom

3D06

Punishment

3E

LAW

3E01

Law

3F

MORALITY

3F01

Morality and immorality

3F02

Right and justice

3F03

Wrong and injustice

3F04

Virtue

3F05

Moral evil

3F06

Guilt

3F07

Licentiousness

3G

EDUCATION

3G01

Education

3H

FAITH

3H01

Faith

3H02

Religious groups

3H03

Church government

3H04

Worship

3H05

Religious places and artefacts

3I

COMMUNICATION

3I01

Communication and disclosure

3I02

Representation

3I03

Signs and signals

3I04

Insignia and heraldry

3I05

Information and advertising

3I06

Records and monuments

3I07

Sound and video recording

3I08

Writing

3I09

Printing and publishing

3I10

Reading

3I11

Books

3I12

Journalism

(p.291) 3I13

Television and broadcasting

3I14

Correspondence and telecommunications

3J

TRAVEL AND TRAVELLING

3J01

Travel and journeys

3J02

Transport

3J03

Railways

3J04

Navigation

3J05

Air and space travel

3K

OCCUPATION AND WORK

3K01

Occupations and work

3K02

Industry

3K03

Workers and workplaces

3K04

Tools and equipment for work

3K05

Containers

3K06

Machines

3K07

Materials and fuel

3L

TRADE AND FINANCE

3L01

Trade and commerce

3L02

Money

3M

LEISURE

3M01

Leisure and games

3M02

Social events

3M03

The arts

3M04

Music

3M05

Visual arts

3M06

Literature

3M07

Performance arts and film

3M08

Sport

3M09

Types of sport

3M10

Dance