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The Interaction of Focus, Givenness, and ProsodyA Study of Italian Clause Structure$

Vieri Samek-Lodovici

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198737926

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198737926.001.0001

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(p.327) Index

(p.327) Index

Source:
The Interaction of Focus, Givenness, and Prosody
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Note: Page numbers follwed by ‘n’ refer to the footnotes.
A-movement 141, 157
Abels, K. 89n, 232n
adjuncts, right dislocation 82–3
adverbs 18
lower 65–6
evidence for marginalization 39–41
movement 268
pied-piping 266–7
right dislocated
order asymmetries 172–3
scope asymmetries 170–2
agreement with clitics 84
agreement loss 109
evidence for marginalization 36–7
anaphoric binding 68–70
Anconetan Italian 36, 53, 109
Antinucci, F. and G. Cinque 25n
Baković, E. 256–7
bare NPs 208
basic word order 26–9, 258–60
base-generation 34, 40, 79, 135, 152
vs. movement-based analysis 77, 87–8, 145, 149, 257–60
Beghelli, F. 71
Beghelli, F. and T. Stowell 71
Belletti, A. 3–4, 44, 45, 46n, 50, 64, 133, 187
Benincà, P. 81, 91n, 212
Benincà, P. and C. Poletto 212, 214
Bianchi, V. 216–18
Bianchi, V. and G. Bocci 216–18
binding relations 67–73
evidence for marginalization 34–6
of right dislocation 101–4
Bocci, G. 97–8, 109–11
Bocci, G. and C. Avesani 289
Brasoveanu, A. and A. Prince 293n
Brunetti, L. 9, 50, 64n, 177, 182n, 199–200, 206
c-command 154–5, 182
licensing of n-words 299–300
Calabrese, A. 92, 182n
canonical word order, see basic word order
Cardinaletti, A. 5, 19, 32, 35n, 36, 41, 69n, 71–2, 79, 83, 84, 87, 150
Cardinaletti, A. and M. Starke 51n
cartographic analyses of focalization 2–7, 223
intermediate focus projection above VP 50–1, 63–4
left-peripheral focus projection above TP 44–50, 187–9, 194–6, 211, 224
cartographic hypothesis 4
Cecchetto, C. 76, 77n, 90, 95–6, 101, 103, 132, 135, 136–40, 151
Chomsky, N. 101, 147–8, 242, 252, 157
clausal complements
non-finite (untensed) 53–6, 60–1, 105–8, 118–20, 128
finite (tensed) 118–20, 128
clause-external analyses of right dislocation 75–7, 87–91, 91–111, 137–46, 150–7
clause-internal analyses of right dislocation 132–7, 146–9
clauses, focalization 260–1
clitic doubling (RD+) 11, 13–14, 19, 78–9
absence, see RD
clause-external 91–4
disallowed by marginalization 26, 32
and focus evacuation 186
movement-based analysis 115, 124–31
with null clitics 84–7
obligatory 83
(p.328) post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 209–10
vs. RD 76
structure 90–1
clitic left dislocation (CLLD)
bare NPs 208
clause-external analyses 151–7
clause-internal analysis 144–9
contrastivity 205–7
movement-based analysis 130–1
vs. post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 200–1, 201–8
vs. right dislocation 76–7, 113–131,137–8, 142
complements, clausal see clausal complements
condition C 101–4, 140–1
contrastive focalization 205–7, 225
classifications 8–9
negative phrases 4–5, 190–6
position in clause 10, 44–64, 176–90, 237–9, 298
and post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 214, 216–18
postverbal 42–3, 58–64
copy theory 242
corrective focalization 8, 216–18
Costa, J. 27n, 239n, 253
Crocco, C. 78, 285
crosslinguistic variation 157–61
crossover effects 143, 214
Cruschina, S. 81, 87
Czech 176n
De Cat, C. 105n, 108n, 151, 160
Déchaine, R-M. and M. Wiltschko 51n
declaratives
right dislocation 78
word order 27–9 see also basic word order
Dehé, N. 253
Destress-RD (DstrRD) constraint 287, 289–92
discourse-given constituents 8, 10–11, 23, 179–80
binding relations 67–73
marginalization 25–6
Marginalization constraint 243–55
post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 213
R-marking 287–8
rightmost focus 59–64
subjects 51–3
DislocateGiven (DislGiv) constraint 288, 289–92
double topicalization analysis 89
Downing, L.J. and B. Pompino-Marschall 242–3n
Elementary Ranking Condition 293n
Engdahl, E. 219n
English 157n, 179–80, 195, 219n, 220
epithet licensing 203–4
evacuated focus see focus evacuation
exhaustive focalization 8
existential F-closure 179
experiencer objects 53–4, 60–1
Extended Projection Principle (EPP) constraint 252–3, 257, 284, 289–92
familiar topics 215–16
Fanselow, G. and D. Lenertová 10n, 176n
Feldhausen, I. 98, 157–8, 285n
Fernández, J. 157n
Féry, C. 243n
flexible generation 257–60
floating quantifiers 56–8, 261–5, 282–5
focalization
alternatives 8
clause-wide 27–8, 135–6, 260–1
contrastive see contrastive focalization
in clause-internal analyses 135–6
of heads 6, 253–4
new information see new information focus
presentational see new information focus
(p.329) focus evacuation 11, 13–16, 18, 176–224, 294
position 183–9
prosody 285–93
supported by wh-extraction 224–35
focused verbs 253–4
Frascarelli, M. 132, 152–7, 273–4n, 289
Frascarelli, M. and R. Hinterhölzl 75, 88, 143n, 152, 200, 213, 215–16, 222
French 87, 105, 157–8, 160–1
Gerlach, B. 93
German 176n, 220
Grimshaw, J. 267
Grimshaw, J. and V. Samek-Ludovici 252, 257
Haegeman, L. 194
hanging topics (HTs) 200–8
head structures, prosodic phrasing 270–6, 279–82
Head-of-intonational-phrase (Hd-ip) constraint 243, 245–59, 261–2, 264–5, 275, 276, 278, 280, 284, 289–92
Head-of-phonological-phrase (Hd-pp) constraint 307
Head-of-utterance-phrase (Hd-up) constraint 287, 289–90
higher-generated adverbs 172–3
higher-generated phrases, following postverbal focus 166–7
idiomatic forms, indefinites 169–70
in situ focalization 11–13, 17–19, 43, 163, 237
vs. left-peripheral focalization 44–50
vs. raising 50–8
and right dislocation 163–76
rightmost focus 58–73
subjects 252–3
wh-extraction 225–9
in situ marginalization 25–6, 29–41
indefinites, right-dislocated 167–70
intermediate focus projection 4, 6–8, 50–8, 63–4
interrogatives
co-occurrence with focalization 224–35
right-dislocated 230–2, 234
subordinate clauses 232–4
intonational phrase, stress alignment 244
ip-phrasing 239–41, 285–6
island effects 116, 126, 129, 146–7, 160–1, 204–5
Kayne, R. 76, 77n, 89–90, 95–6, 103n, 132, 138, 154
Kayne, R. and J-Y. Pollock 90
Kenesei, I. and I. Vogel 273n
Krifka, M. 8–9
Kuchenbrandt, I., T. Kupisch, and E. Rinke 93
Lebeaux, D. 101
left-dislocation 152n, 200n
left peripheral focalization 3–4, 164, 176, 182, 187–9 see also focus evacuation
vs. in situ focalization 44–50
left-shift 2–3, 11
irrelevance of pp-phrasing 306–13
shaped by prosodic phrasing 237–9, 241, 245–6, 261–5, 265–85
leftward right dislocation 301–5
Lexical Category Condition 271
marginalization 10, 12, 19–22, 25–6
irrelevance of pp-phrasing 306–13
vs. right dislocation 19–22, 25, 43, 79–80, 94–6
word order 25–6, 29–41
Marginalization (Marg) constraint 243–56, 258–62, 264–5, 277–8, 284, 289–92
movement 17–18, 19–22, 187–8, 220–3
affected by prosody constraints 247–51, 260–85, 285–93
crosslinguistic variation 160–1
(p.330) lack of triggering features 237–8, 241, 255, 266, 286, 294
leftward 301–5
and structure 267–70
Müller, G. 220–3
n-words see negative phrases
ne-cliticization 111–14, 125–7, 131, 149n
Neeleman, A. and H. van de Koot 199
Neeleman, A. and R. Vermeulen 199
neg-markers 44–7, 193–4
negative phrases 4–5, 12, 45–7, 51–8, 60
and focus evacuation 190–6
clause external 96–101
licensing 297–300
marginalization 30–6
preceded by indefinites 166–7
subjects 12
unable to occur as post-focus phrases(PF-phrases) 213
negative polarity items (NPIs) see also NPI-licensing
clause-external 96–101
marginalization 30, 32–4
marginalization vs. right dislocation 80
postverbal 48
new information, word order see basic word order
new information focus (NEWF) 2, 4, 6, 50n, 260
clauses, see basic word order
indefinites 167–8
left-peripheral 182n
lower adverbs 39
and marginalization 26–9
NPI-licensing 192–3
preverbal subject 252
and right dislocation 78, 81
and left-shift 249
rightmost 64, 65
non-finite clausal complements see clausal complements
NoScrambling (NoScr) constraint 254n
NPI-licensing see also negative phrases
in clause-internal analyses of right dislocation 133–5
and focus evacuation 194–6
locality condition 98
objects
contrastive 51–3
experiencer 53–4, 60–1
post-focus see PF-phrases
Obligatory Heads (Ob-Hd) constraint 253–4
optimality theory (OT) 19, 240, 294–5
optionality 256–7
order asymmetries, adverbs 172–3
p-movement 245–6
parasitic gaps 5–6, 49–50, 123–4, 218–19
past participle preposing, evidence for marginalization 37–9
Penka, D. 297
PF-phrases (post-focus phrases) 197
contrastive and corrective focalization 216–18
discourse status 197–212
as familiar topics 215–16
as foci 212–15
post-focal constituents 282–4 see alsoPF-phrases
following postverbal focus 166–7
post-focus phrases see PF-phrases
postverbal focus 44–50
binding relations 67–73
in situ 50–8
postverbal subjects 7, 27, 54–6, 58, 59–60, 61, 67, 166
pp-phrasing 271–82, 306–13
pre-focal right dislocation 109–11
prepositions
dropping 202–3
pied-piping 183
presentational clauses, word order see basic word order
presentational focus (NEWF) see new information focus
Prince, A. 293n
(p.331) Principle of Categorial Invisibility of Function Words 271
pronominal binding 141–6
proper binding 138–40
prosodic analysis of focalization 17–19, 238–9, 241–2
prosodic phrasing
constraints 243, 244–65, 272, 287, 307
effect on left-shift 265–85
right dislocation and focus evacuation 285–93
prosodic size 51–2n
prosodic structure 239–40
quantified objects, post-focal 282–4
quantifier binding 70
quantifier extraction 85
quantifier stranding 262, 263–5, 284–5
quantifiers, floating 56–8
R-marking 287–8
raising vs. in situ focalization 50–8 see also in situ focalization; focus evacuation
RD+ (right dislocation with clitic doubling) 11, 13–14, 19, 78–9
vs. base-generation 77, 87–8, 145, 149
clause-external 91, 108
and focus evacuation 186
movement-based analysis 111–32
and null clitics 84–7
post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 209–10
vs. RD 76
structure 90–1
RD (right dislocation without clitic doubling) 80–7
ne-cliticization 113–14
post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 207–8
vs. RD+ 76
structure 88–90, 91
reconstruction effects 115–16, 127–8, 136, 160
in clause-internal analyses 136–7
remnant movement 21n, 89, 138, 145, 146, 216, 220–3
restructuring verbs 55–6
revised Marginalization (RevMarg) constraint 259
Riggle, J. 240n
Right Dislocate (RDisl) constraint 288, 289–92
right dislocation (RD) 11 see also RD+; RD
apparent leftward focus movement 13
binding relations 101–4
clause-external analyses 91–111, 137–46, 150–7
clause-internal analyses 132–7, 146–9
crosslinguistic variation 157–61
of entire TPs 180–2, 185–6
focus evacuation 13–16
and in situ focalization 165–76
vs. marginalization 19–22, 25, 43, 79–80, 94–6
movement-based 111–32
movement-based vs. base-generation 77, 87–8, 145, 149
pre-focal 109–11
properties 78–91
prosody 285–93
rightmost focus 58–73, 145–7
right-roof effects 105–8, 138
Rizzi, L. 3–4, 16, 26, 44, 46n, 48, 75, 89n, 99n, 115n, 177, 181, 182, 187–8, 211, 223, 224, 229, 231–3
root clauses, focalization 260–1
root condition 147–8
Rooth, M. 9
Samek-Lodovici, V. 82n, 101, 103, 137, 150, 151, 178n, 201, 203, 210, 224, 252, 257, 272–4n
Sanchez, L. 93
Schwarzschild, R. 179, 217
scope asymmetries
in adverbs 170–2
in indefinites 167–70
Selkirk, E. 271
Single Event Condition (SEC) 118n
Spanish 27, 92–3, 140, 142, 146
(p.332) specifier structures, prosodic phrasing 270–9, 281
Stay constraint 242, 245–62, 264–5, 276, 278, 280, 284, 289–92
stress
followed by right dislocated constituents 78–9
stress alignment 2, 17–19, 42, 58, 63, 74, 237–8, 242, 243
Stress-Focus (SF) constraint 242–3, 245–55, 257–9, 261–2, 264–5, 275, 284, 289–92
stress retraction 273–4n
stress slots 245, 271
StressXP constraint 271–5, 288
strong islands 130, 160–1, 201, 204–5, 224
subjects
negative 62, 68–70
discourse-given 12, 51–3, 54–6
non-negative
focused 56, 57–8, 60–1, 64, 92, 93n, 121n, 165
analysis 252–4, 258–9
co-occurring with wh-phrases 225
postverbal 7, 27, 54–6, 58, 59–60, 61,67, 166
as diagnostics for right-roofeffects 105–8
successive cyclicity 121–3
Szabolcsi, A. 65n, 71
Szendröi, K. 286
tensed domains, extraction from 118–20, 128
tied constraints 256–7
Truckenbrodt, H. 243, 271
Truswell, R. 118–20, 123
unambiguous domination principle 220–3
Vallduví, E. 92, 151, 163n, 200
van de Koot, H. 103n
verbs
focalization 6, 253–4
restructuring 55–6
Villalba, X. 98, 123, 130–1, 133, 134, 141–2, 144–7, 151, 157–8
wh-extraction 28, 112, 116–17, 150
clitic doubling 129–30
and contrastive focalization 48, 224–35
and in-situ focalization 173–5
and the Single Event Condition(SEC) 118n
support for focus evacuation 224–35
wh-phrases, negative 5
word order
adverbs 172–3
canonical 26–9, 258–60
after focus evacuation 210–11
post-focus phrases (PF-phrases) 215–16
right dislocation and marginalization 94–6
Wrap constraint 271–5, 288
Zanuttini, R. 297
Zimmermann, M. 9
Zubizarreta, M.L. 46n, 77n, 92, 151, 245