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Recognizing the Non-religiousReimagining the Secular$

Lois Lee

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198736844

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736844.001.0001

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(p.229) Index

(p.229) Index

Source:
Recognizing the Non-religious
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Abrahamic religion51
absence18, 54, 55, 104, 113, 167
Advertising Standards Authority (ASA)79
afterlife45, 55, 96, 125, 160, 163
agnosticism163, 164–5, 166, 172–5, 176
relativism164
in religious culture54
and scientific knowledge163
and self-identification152, 154, 164, 172–5
Alpha course83
alternative religion37
alternative spirituality
existential160, 166
individualization56
and religion26, 47, 67, 194, 197
and secularity16, 36, 41
anthropology of religion16, 29, 81, 87, 187, 188
anti-existential165, 169–71, 172, 175, 177–8
anti-religion9–10, 28–9, 37, 39, 46, 47, 49, 60–1, 62, 64, 68–9, 76–9, 85, 87, 106, 116, 118–19, 136, 147–8, 179, 186, 190, 203gl
anti-spirituality119
anti-theism37, 38, 63, 203gl
areligion203gl
and non-religion33, 47
and post-secularity45
and secularity53, 67, 80, 85,189, 190
term29, 30, 32, 37, 145
use of church buildings104
Asad, Talal
and genealogical approach46
and postcolonial approach58
on ‘religion’23
on religious basis of secularity191
on secular embodiment88, 102
on secularism43, 57
Aston, Katie77, 89
atheism37–9, 62–3, 64, 203gl
as affiliation132
as ‘aggressive’135–6, 140
associations with elite 137–40
‘British Atheism’133–41
categories165
in concept of secularity10, 12
‘convinced atheism’136
as indication of religion54
‘militant atheism’62
popular conceptions of133, 134–6
positive or negative8, 37
prevalence of6
and relationship with god(s)39
self-identification24
use of term48, 134
as Western concept38
‘Atheist Bus Campaign’71n1, 81–4, 143
‘atheist shoes’89, 90–1
‘atheocracy’191
atomism and insufficient solidarity123–5, 126
Attenborough, David176, 177, 178
Bagg, Samuel and Voas, David53, 142
Bailey, Edward8, 56, 94
Baker, Joseph O’Brian and Smith, Buster65
banality70–85
domestic non-religion72–4
identity markers91, 101
indifference78, 79–81
irreverence80
material non-religion77–8, 88
official non-religion81–4
public non-religion74, 75–7
self-identification158
‘banal nationalism’70, 71, 82
Bauman, Zygmunt54, 121, 128
Beck, Ulrich and Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth54, 66
Becker, Howard14
Beckford, James A.23, 46, 157
Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin54
Bellah, Robert N.82
Bender, Courtney and Taves, Ann16
bereavement54, 96, 112, 182
(p.230) Berger, Peter56, 184, 191
Berger, Peter, Davie, Grace and Fokas, Ellie60, 61, 179
Berman, Morris56
Berns, Steph33, 34, 45, 98, 148
Bhargava, Rajeev16
Billig, Michael70, 71, 80, 82, 85, 170, 187
binary approaches15, 16, 40, 41–2
body, human18, 86–105
badges and barriers99–101, 102
Christian97
humanist102
non-religious94–6, 97–9
secular102–3
secularist45, 97–98
statement clothing88–91
understatement clothing92–4
Bourdieu, Pierre32, 95, 101, 200
Brazil1
‘Bright’151
Brigstocke, Marcus106, 113, 147, 148
British Humanist Association (BHA)35, 71n1, 82, 93, 123, 125, 144
‘Census Campaign’143
British Museum34, 45, 98, 148
British Social Attitudes survey5, 24, 154, 155
Bruce, Steve7, 53, 54, 85, 136, 156
Budd, Susan63
Bullivant, Stephen4, 36, 98, 139, 157
Burchardt, Marian16, 47n6
Cambridge10, 11
Campbell, Colin
on ethics and religion124
on irreligion24, 31, 32, 33, 63
and non-religion13, 15, 59, 64, 97, 137, 186, 187
relational view58, 67
on terminology28, 48
Cannell, Fenella59
Casanova, José9, 60, 117, 198
Casserley, Langmead171
Census for England and Wales
2001142, 143, 153, 154, 156, 198
2011153, 154
Christianity
anti-Christian graffiti78
ceremonies117, 181
embodiment97
ethnicization of155, 156
imagery78, 79, 80, 91
New Atheist attitude towards86
references in packaging73–4
secularism and40, 43
self-identification as109, 114,155, 156
surveys and51
Christmas, non-theist celebration of126
church buildings, secular use104
Church census 1851 29, 57
civil religion82
cognitive research29, 51, 97
collectivism66
‘communal secularism’127
compensators55
Congregational Year Book57, 171
Connolly, William E.45, 179
Copeman, Jacob and Quack, Johannes96
Copson, Andrew143
Corporale, Rocco and Grumelli, Antonio63
Cox, Brian176
Cultural Anthropology87
cultural diversity60
cultural icons82
Dant, Tim83, 88
Darwin, Charles63, 77
Davie, Grace8, 56, 65, 94, 97, 187
Dawkins, Richard
‘Atheist Bus Campaign’71n1
humanism168, 176, 177
New Atheism63, 118, 134, 137, 198
on the religious86
Day, Abby6, 13, 155
de Botton, Alain129, 139
Denmark6
Dennett, Daniel63
Descartes, René176
desecularization2, 4, 31, 41, 56
digital media83–4
disaffiliation132, 152, 157; See also non-affiliation
dress, non-religious89, 94–6
Durkheim, Émile6, 7, 108, 126, 129, 148, 159
Eagleton, Terry159
educational institutions, and non-religion114
(p.231) Eisenstadt, Shmuel N.43
embodiment, See body, human
Engelke, Matthew77, 87, 89, 93, 187
Enlightenment9, 46, 61, 176
ethics
agnosticism164
anti-existential169, 170
existential160, 172, 184
‘Golden Rule, the’125
humanism144, 162
and religion66, 124, 125
ethnographic data11
Europe6, 56, 60, 192
evangelicalism56
Evans, Pippa129
evolutionary theory63
exclusion118
existential cultures19, 159–84
agnosticism163, 164–5, 166, 176, 180
anti-existential169–71, 172
binary approaches168
humanism162–3, 164, 165, 166, 176, 180
intellectualist178
in practice172–5
public and private178–9
in public life175–8
religion and non-religion180–3
‘existential indifference’169
‘existential security’53
family, and non-religion114
Fitzgerald, Timothy23, 26, 57, 184, 200
Foucauldian approach23
Foundation for Reason and Science134
‘four horsemen’63
‘freethinker’151
friendship108–9, 110
functionalism159
fundamentalism56
funerals123, 124, 181
‘fuzzy religiosity’6
Gane, Nicholas56
Geertz, Armin W. and Markússon, Guðmundur Ingi38
Gellner, Ernest184
gender76, 165
genealogical approach23, 40, 46, 57
Gibson, Nicholas4
Gibson, Nicholas and Barnes, Kirsten157
Giddens, Anthony54, 55, 182
godlessness38, 53, 54, 90, 136
‘Golden Rule, the’125
graffiti76, 77–8, 84
Grayling, A. C.86, 134
Guardian, the134, 150, 175, 176, 178
Gutkowksi, Stacey4, 32, 101
Haas, Peter M.126
Habermas, Jürgen60, 121
habitus99, 101
Halman, Loek and Moor, Ruud de56
Harris, Sam63
Hawking, Stephen176
Hayes, Bernadette C.137
Heelas, Paul and Woodhead, Linda119, 166
hidden solidarities18, 19
consolidation126–8
and friendship108–9, 110
intimacy and religion110
networks121, 122
non-religious socialization111–12, 113
taken-for-granted113–15
Hirschkind, Charles87, 88, 102
Hitchens, Christopher63, 198
humanism162–3, 180; See also British Humanist Association
and agnosticism163, 164, 165
and the body102
ceremonies95
and non-religion34, 35
public discourse175, 176
‘secular humanism’35
self-identification151–2, 174, 175, 183
and theism166
Huxley, T. H.63, 164
hypocrisy, religious119
hypotheses for research65–9
ideal-typical secularity, as non-entity9
identification131–58
atheism133, 134–41
as contradistinction to religion132
indifference and indifferentism144, 145–50
in-group115
markers99–101, 102
multiple13
negative133, 136, 141, 149, 151, 157
nones and nothingness153–6
public74, 75
(p.232) immanence99, 167, 169, 170
implicit religion56, 94
inclusion195–7
India1
indifference29–30, 144, 145–9, 185, 203gl
as disaffiliation132, 133
British Social Attitudes Survey154
and irreligion31
irreverence and78, 79–84
secularity and53, 54
indifferentism90, 141, 149–50, 198
individualization66, 67
industrial modernity1, 6, 7
Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture (ISSSC)4
insubstantial secularity
Bruce on53
and categorization157
impact of106, 132
negative concepts131
non-religious encounters59
post-structuralism and57
relationship to religion19
and secularization theory55, 56, 61
theory of55
interactions5
irreligion31–7, 203gl
intellectual concept9, 10, 171
as middle class171
rejection of religion31, 97
sociology of63
irreverence and indifference78, 79–81
Islam38, 45, 76, 80
Islamophobia71, 77, 78, 80
isolation122, 123
Institute for the Study of Secularism (ISSC)4
James, William36
Jesussaid.org81, 83
Jones, Sanderson129
Keysar, Ariela4
Keysar, Ariela and Navarro-Rivera, Juhem137
Kitson Clark, George29, 57
Knott, Kim27, 40, 42, 75, 93
Kosmin, Barry4, 8, 16, 30, 44
Kuper, Adam34
Laborde, Cécile170, 183
‘Land of Hope and Glory’ (Elgar)73
Lave, Jean and Wenger, Etienne63
Lehmann, David56
liberalism40
life-cycle rituals181, 182, 184
London10, 11, 76, 138
London, University of134
London Review of Books138
Luckmann, Thomas166
Lynch, Gordon62
Maclure, Jocelyn and Taylor, Charles170, 184
Maffesoli, Michel66
Martin, Michael35, 39, 163
Marx, Karl55
material culture, non-religious75, 77–8, 83, 96
McCrae, Ronan192
McCutcheon, Russell23, 26
McGuire, Meredith B.91
McLennan, Gregor61, 62
McLoughlin, Seán200
media77, 83, 99
mediated quasi-interaction113
Meek, James138
Mellor, Philip A. and Shilling, Chris98, 99
‘militant atheism’62
modernist9–10, 46, 64, 66, 101, 102, 106, 163, 176
modernity1, 2, 6–9, 43, 54–7, 66–7, 102, 185, 189
modernization1, 7, 54, 182
Modood, Tariq8, 16, 136
morality, and religion124–5
Muhammad, representations of80
mysticism179, 180
nationalism70
National Secular Society (NSS)35
naturalism35
networks108, 121–2, 128, 129
neutrality53, 57, 58, 144, 145, 150, 198
New Atheism63, 203gl
centrality of134
in domestic spaces73
as elite139
influence of198
material form71
media representation178
negativity towards136, 137
reception studies118
(p.233) and solidarity67
view of the religious86
Nine Lessons and Carols for Godless People12, 126, 148
nominal religion and non-religion6, 155
non-affiliation2, 133, 155
nones and nothingness131, 132, 143, 153–6
non-religion12–14, 31–5, 69, 203gl
as affiliation132, 143
anti-social118–21
and celebration128
commitment to154
contradistinction to religion32
cultures49, 50, 141–4
and difference34
domestic72–4
as elite137–40
ethnography17
everyday forms70–85
existential19
images72–4
intellectualization62–4, 113, 114, 137, 138, 139, 140
and lack of visibility125
material17, 18, 70
multiculturalist approach34
multiple identities153
narratives86–8
and national identification82
non-institutionalization109, 123, 124, 175, 193
official81–4
organized18, 187
perceived openness of141, 142
prevalence5
public74, 75–7
in public life131–58
and rejection34
and religion18, 19, 32, 97
and religious others119–20, 125
research65
pro-social115–18
and secularity14, 15–16, 20, 44–5, 62–4
socialization111–12, 113, 126–7
social aspects of67, 106–20, 128, 129
as term25, 144, 145
Nonreligion and Secularity Research Network (NSRN)4
non-religionization105, 133
non-theism204gl
articulation of118
movements139
public discourse63
self-identification113, 114
term37, 38, 39
toiletry packaging73–4, 75
Norris, Pippa and Inglehart, Ronald53, 55, 171
nostalgia74
‘not religious’5, 143, 152
organic solidarity108
organized relationships106, 107
‘othering’87
otherness100, 148
embodiment of97, 100
enactment of30
and engagement34, 58
and indifference148
and relationships120–1
shared117
terminology38
Oxford English Dictionary (OED)31, 32
Pahl, Ray and Spencer, Liz18
Pasquale, Frank L.131
‘peg communities’128
Phillipson, Heather177, 178
Pink, Sarah75, 83
plurality and pluralism186
Poland6
political secularism34, 35, 44, 45, 87
post-colonialism40, 58, 64, 150
postmodernism85
post-religion30, 31, 53, 58, 79, 85, 130, 204gl
post-secular45, 46, 59, 60, 67, 68, 69, 117, 192, 204gl
post-structuralism23, 40, 57, 64
public life, non-religious131–58
‘British Atheism’133–41
identification150, 151–3
indifference and indifferentism144, 145–50
‘nones’153–6
secularity49
substantive ‘non-religious’ cultures141–4
public spaces45
(p.234) Quack, Johannes28, 31, 32, 47n6, 187, 199
Qur’an38
rational choice theory55, 56, 67
rationalism35, 36, 118, 119, 151, 152, 163
reception studies118
religion25–7, 204gl
as analytical category27
archaeology63
as comfort for disadvantaged53
communality107
conceptions of26–7, 65–6
critique as active choice120
egalitarian approaches170–1
institutions29
as irrelevant9
marginalization of34, 46, 52, 53
as other76
prevalence5
privatization111, 116
pluralism44, 49
and secularity39–47
separation from politics52
sociology of23–4
as substantial50
traditional51, 52
uses of images in non-religion75
Religion for Atheists (de Botton)129, 139
‘religionization’41
religious affiliation51
religious and theological approaches57, 58
religious communities, departure from111, 112, 123
religious habitus99
representation, social, political and legal197–200
research methodology10–11, 12
‘resurgent religion’41
Riis, Ole38
Riis, Ole and Woodhead, Linda98
rites of passage54, 55, 95, 117
rituals4, 55, 123
romantic relationships110
Russell, Bertrand86
‘scepticism’21, 57, 64, 151
Schielke, Samuli38
Schnell, Tatjana169, 171
Schnell, Tatjana and Keenan, William J. F.165, 184
‘School of Life’129, 139
science63, 64, 89, 176
secular204gl
body102, 103
consciousness61
‘secular field’11
secular-in-relation58–9
Secular Age, A (Taylor)49, 50
‘secular humanism’35
secularism42–3, 44, 151, 204gl
as anti-religious9
hard and soft30
ideological nature59
modernist64
and non-religious embodiment97, 98
‘radical secularism’136
and secularity43
secularity14–16, 39–42, 204gl
Bruce on85
concept of religion26, 66
contradistinction25
as default position53
ethnography17
exclusion of religious118
heterogeneity of51
identification of self with religion143
insubstantial and substantial17, 21, 49, 50–2
literature on8–10
and non-religion44–5
pluralist167
and post-secularity45
prevalence152–3
as recent6
and religion25
seen in negative terms53
use of term50
as Western, Protestant concept40
secularization46–7, 63, 105, 191
secularization paradigm7, 14, 50, 53, 54, 69
secularization theory9, 52–4, 55, 61, 67
and banality70, 74
critics of55–6, 57
and insubstantial secularity52
and non-religion14, 15
and post-religion31
and secularity40
subtraction account51
secular liberalism44
(p.235) secular modernity7, 54, 189; See also modernity
self-identification19, 24, 132, 157
Sherine, Ariane81, 83
Siegers, Pascale6, 29, 155
slogans, non-religion89
Smith, Jesse38
Soap and Glory73–4, 75
social cohesion6, 7
sociology of irreligion63
Sociology of Religion, The (Weber)23
solidarity, networked122–3
Something for the Weekend106, 113
Spencer, Liz and Pahl, Ray66, 121, 122, 126, 150
spirituality26, 36, 204gl
spiritualization of society thesis67
Stark, Rodney55
Stark, Rodney and Bainbridge, William Sims55
Stark, Rodney and Finke, Roger56
state atheism191
state churches187
statement clothing88–91
state secularity31
Stephen, Leslie63
Stik76, 94
Strhan, Anna187
‘subjective secularity’2
subjectivism164, 166, 167, 169
substantial non-religion69, 87, 112
substantial secularity4, 58–64, 185
Sunday Assembly104, 129, 139
symbols, religious93
tattoos89, 93
Taves, Ann200
Taylor, Charles
on existential161
on humanism163
pluralist approach15, 49, 167, 186
A Secular Age49, 50
and secularity40, 42
on secularization191
and subtraction51, 53
terms21
theism204gl
as narrow concept26
as norm38
rejection of10
related terms37–9
and romanticism164
and subjectivism165, 166–8
theocracy41, 42
Thompson, John B.113
Time of Tribes: The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society (Maffesoli)66
Towards a Sociology of Irreligion (Campbell)31
Towler, Robert10, 27
Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut4
Turner, Bryan S.59, 66, 67, 128
unbelief48, 50, 62, 63, 65, 115
understatement clothing92–4
unreligious6, 57, 64, 67
urban environment76
United States (US)6, 38, 106, 139, 187
Varieties of Unbelief: Atheists and Agnostics in English Society, 1850–1960 (Budd) 63
Vatican63
vicarious religion56, 94
Voas, David6
Voas, David and Crockett, Alastair56
Voas, David and Day, Abby155, 156
Voas, David and Ling, Rodney6, 24, 154
Voas, David and McAndrew, Siobhan137, 188
vocabulary21–48, 150, 151–3
intellectualization151
‘religion’25–7
religion-related terms28, 29–37
relational28
secular-related terms39–47
theism-related terms37–9
Ware, Vron and Back, Les195
Weber, Max6, 7, 23, 24, 53, 160
weddings95, 96
Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika16, 47n6
Wohlrab-Sahr, Monika and Burchardt, Marian16, 40, 42, 43, 61
Woodhead, Linda23, 24, 75, 95, 123, 149, 168
Zuckerman, Phil2, 53, 54, 112, 171