The most important challenges to idealism are: (1) the problem of unusual origins—no amount of phenomenological potential is sufficient for the existence of ordinary physical things, since we can imagine scenarios (evil demons, envatted brains) that have all the phenomenological potential that characterizes the actual world, but in which there exist few if any of the physical things that actually exist; (2) the problem of deceptive appearances:—idealism has no defensible way to distinguish between veridical experiences (like the ones we have in normal waking life) and deceptive experiences (like those that characterize dreams, hallucinations, and misperceptions); and, (3) the problem of imperceptible things:—idealism is incompatible with the idea that spacetime contains unobservable objects and events. In Chapter 9, we reply to these objections, arguing that none of them succeeds against a properly formulated idealism.
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