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Basic X-Ray Scattering for Soft Matter$
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Wim H. de Jeu

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198728665

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728665.001.0001

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Soft Matter Films and Surfaces

Soft Matter Films and Surfaces

(p.103) 6 Soft Matter Films and Surfaces
Basic X-Ray Scattering for Soft Matter

Wim H. de Jeu

Oxford University Press

In this chapter special attention is paid to the use of x-ray methods at interfaces and films of soft matter. Thin soft matter films are increasingly used in coatings and in many technological applications like liquid crystal displays and nanostructured block copolymer films. Furthermore, there is a fundamental interest in interfaces at which the structure and properties of a material interact with the outer world. First x-ray reflectivity (XRR), both at single and multiple interfaces, and its applications to several types of soft-matter films is discussed. Then methods of grazing incidence diffraction at wide angles (GID or GIWAXS) and small angles (GISAXS) are discussed, as are some examples. It finishes with a case study in which a combination of the various techniques is used to elucidate the monolayer structure of some substituted thiophenes.

Keywords:   x-ray reflectivity, footprint, surface roughness, liquid interfaces, multiple reflections, block copolymer film, grazing incidence scattering, GISAXS, GIWAXS, surface freezing

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