Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Dangerous PoliticsRisk, Political Vulnerability, and Penal Policy$

Harry Annison

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198728603

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728603.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.219) Appendix II Timeline of Relevant Events

(p.219) Appendix II Timeline of Relevant Events

Dangerous Politics
Oxford University Press

23 October 1998

Michael Stone is sentenced to life for the murder of Lin and Megan Russell.

July 1999

Managing Dangerous People with Severe Personality Disorder: Proposals for Policy Development is published by the Home Office and Department for Health.

16 May 2000

Sir John Halliday is asked to commence a review into the sentencing framework of England and Wales.

December 2000

The ‘Birt report’, A New Vision for the Criminal Justice System, is concluded. The Birt report is never formally published.

8 May 2001

A general election is called.

7 June 2001

New Labour wins a ‘landslide’ victory, holding 413 seats compared to the Conservatives’ 166 and the Liberal Democrats’ 52.

8 June 2001

David Blunkett is appointed as Home Secretary, replacing Jack Straw.

5 July 2001

The ‘Halliday report’, Making Punishments Work, is published.

12 December 2001

Roy Whiting is sentenced to life imprisonment for the kidnap and murder of Sarah Payne.

May 2002

  • Lord Falconer is appointed as Minister of State for Criminal Justice, Sentencing, and Law Reform;

  • Hilary Benn appointed as Minister for Prisons at the Home Office.

July 2002

The Justice for All White Paper is published.

21 November 2002

Criminal Justice Bill is introduced to Parliament, containing the proposed IPP sentence in Part 12 Chapter 5, ‘Dangerous Offenders’.

25 November 2002

The House of Lords rule, in Anderson, that the Home Secretary’s power to set the minimum tariff imposed on convicted murderers is incompatible with Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

11 February 2003

The Imprisonment for Public Protection sentence is debated in Committee Stage. Prisons Minister, Hilary Benn MP, states that ‘we have assumed in our modelling that … there would be an additional 900 in the prison population’.

May 2003

Hilary Benn leaves his post to return to the Department for International Development.

June 2003

Baroness Scotland of Asthal is appointed Minister for the Criminal Justice System and Law Reform at the Home Office.

20 November 2003

The Criminal Justice Bill receives Royal Assent.

January–March 2005

The Judicial Studies Board conducts training in relation to the sentencing aspects of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. This includes guidance on the IPP sentence.

3 November 2005

Rose LJ, delivering judgment in the Court of Appeal, provides guidance in Lang et al., encouraging restraint in the use of the IPP sentence.

20 October 2006

The Court of Appeal uses Johnson to emphasize its guidance in Lang et al.

6 February 2007

The Home Affairs Committee begins its ‘Towards Effective Sentencing’ inquiry.

9 May 2007

The Ministry of Justice is created.

26 June 2007

The Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill introduced to Parliament by David Hanson, Minister at Ministry of Justice. Single proposed amendment to the IPP sentence is increased discretion for trial judge to extend the tariff period.

27 June 2007

Gordon Brown becomes Prime Minister, replacing Tony Blair.

28 June 2007

Jack Straw is appointed Secretary of State for Justice, replacing Lord Falconer. Constitutional changes mean that the Ministry of Justice has inherited responsibility for prisons and sentencing, among other areas, from the Home Office. John Reid is replaced by Jacqui Smith as Home Secretary.

31 July 2007

Laws LJ, delivering judgment in the High Court, rules in Wells that the operation of the IPP sentence has resulted in a ‘general and systemic legal failure’ and that the continued detention of post-tariff IPP prisoners in the absence of proper resourcing of the system is ‘unlawful on first principles’.

31 July 2007

The Prison Reform Trust publishes ‘Indefinitely Maybe’, emphasizing the systemic damage and human suffering caused by the IPP sentence.

20 August 2007

Collins J delivers judgment in James, following Laws LJ’s earlier judgment.

21 September 2007

The Howard League for Penal Reform publishes the report, ‘Indeterminate Sentences for Public Protection’, containing interviews with sentenced IPP prisoners and arguing for policy change.

8 October 2007

Jack Straw introduces the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill for Second Reading in the Commons, noting that he is ‘concerned’ about the IPP situation.

8 October 2007

The ‘How to Reduce Prison Overcrowding—Some Practical Solutions’ event is held at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor.

9 October 2007

Justice Minister Jack Straw and Lord Carter are pressed by the Constitutional Affairs Select Committee on the IPP backlog. Jack Straw describes his as not ‘a situation anyone in my position would have wished on their worst enemy still less on themselves’.

7 November 2007

The Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill is formally reintroduced to Parliament by Jack Straw for the 2007–08 session, having been carried over from the previous session. Single proposed amendment to the IPP sentence remains the increased discretion for trial judge to extend the tariff period.

5 December 2007

The ‘Carter report’, Securing the Future, is published. Appendix E sets out proposals for the amendment of the IPP sentence.

9 January 2008

Amendments to the IPP sentence are introduced as government amendments to the bill.

9 January 2008

IPP amendments are debated at Second Reading stage in House of Commons.

1 February 2008

The Court of Appeal rules in Walker and James that the Secretary of State had breached Article 5(4) of the ECHR by failing to adequately resource the IPP system. However, Article 5(1) was not breached and therefore the continued imprisonment of post-tariff IPP prisoners was ruled to be lawful.

26 February 2008

IPP amendments are debated at Committee Stage in House of Lords.

2 April 2008

IPP amendments are debated at Report Stage in House of Lords.

8 May 2008

The Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill receives Royal Assent.

7 July 2008

The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (SCMH) holds an Expert Forum on the IPP Sentence.

14 July 2008

Amendments to the IPP sentence come into force.

22 July 2008

The Justice Committee publishes the ‘Towards Effective Sentencing’ report, which heavily criticizes the IPP sentence and its ongoing operation.

18 September 2008

The SCMH publishes ‘In the Dark’, raising concerns about the mental health impact of the IPP sentence.

15 October 2008

HM Inspectors of Prisons and Probation publish a joint report, ‘The Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection: A thematic review’.

6 May 2009

The House of Lords, in James, Wells, and Lee, upholds the Court of Appeal’s ruling in Walker and James, describing the government’s legislative amendments and administrative actions as leading to ‘undoubted improvements’.

March 2010

HM Inspectors of Prisons and Probation publish a second joint thematic report, in which they describe the current situation as ‘unsustainable’.

12 May 2010

Following the general election and inter-party talks, a Conservative–Liberal Democrat Coalition Government is formed.

12 May 2010

Kenneth Clarke is appointed Justice Secretary.

June 2010

Prison Reform Trust publishes the report ‘Unjust Deserts’, which identifies ‘an urgent need for government to review the sentence, and examine the available policy options’.

June 2010

The Ministry of Justice’s sentencing review commences.

15 June 2010

Prisons Minister Crispin Blunt tells MPs that the current situation regarding IPPs is ‘not a defensible position’.

25 September 2010

Ed Miliband is elected leader of the Labour Party.

13 October 2010

The Prison Governors Association calls for the urgent release of post-tariff IPP prisoners.

23 November 2010

Former Justice Secretary Jack Straw urges Ken Clarke to retain the IPP sentence to ensure public safety.

December 2010

Breaking the Cycle Green Paper is published by the Ministry of Justice, which proposes introducing a ten-year minimum tariff for the IPP sentence.

18 May 2011

Justice Secretary Ken Clarke appears to suggest in a BBC interview that some rapes are ‘less serious’ than others. A vociferous media storm ensues.

21 June 2011

The Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Bill is published. It contains no provisions relating to the IPP sentence.

21 June 2011

Prime Minister David Cameron holds a press conference on sentencing reform, stating that the IPP system will be reviewed urgently.

29 June 2011

Its possible abolition is heavily criticized by Labour MPs during the Second Reading of the LASPO Bill. Critics include former Prisons Minister Paul Goggins, former Justice Secretary Jack Straw, and Shadow Justice Secretary Sadiq Khan.

August 2011

Riots and looting occur in parts of London, Manchester, and other parts of the UK.

26 October 2011

The Ministry of Justice announces the completion of its review of IPP sentences. IPP sentences will be replaced by a regime involving ‘mandatory’ life sentences and Extended Determinate Sentences.

1 November 2011

Clauses and Schedules relating to the abolition of the IPP sentence are introduced at Report Stage of the LASPO Bill by Justice Secretary Kenneth Clarke.

1 May 2012

LASPO Act 2012 receives Royal Assent.

14 May 2012

Former Parole Board chairman Sir David Latham warns that the ‘pips are squeaking’ due to the Board’s increasing workload, driven in large part by the IPP sentence.

4 September 2012

Chris Grayling replaces Kenneth Clarke as Justice Secretary.

18 September 2012

The European Court of Human Rights, in James, Wells, and Lee, overturns the House of Lords decision in James, Lee, and Wells, ruling that the continued detention of IPP prisoners under present conditions breaches Article 5(1) ECHR.

18 September 2012

Chris Grayling tells MPs of his ‘disappointment’ with the ruling and intention to appeal the decision.

December 2012

The Ministry of Justice makes an application for leave to appeal to the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights.

17 June 2013

The Howard League for Penal Reform publishes ‘The Never-Ending Story’, which reports on research conducted in collaboration with the Prison Governors Association.

4 March 2014

A panel discussion ‘The Prisoners Left Behind: Imprisonment for Public Protection after its Abolition’ is held at the Bingham Centre for the Rule of Law, focussing on IPP prisoners who remain in the system.

13 March 2014

BBC Newsnight runs a feature on the continued detention of IPP prisoners. David Blunkett expresses ‘regret’ at the Labour Government’s failure to be ‘effective enough’ in implementing the sentence.

27 March 2014

Prisons minister Lord Faulks makes clear the government’s position: ‘it would not be right or appropriate in our view retrospectively to alter [IPP] sentences that had been lawfully imposed prior to [its] abolition’.

(p.220) (p.221) (p.222) (p.223) (p.224)