Chocolate and cocoa have been subject to regulations and standards as long as cocoa has been cultivated and used. This chapter reviews the regulations that have been imposed on the cocoa–chocolate chain since the growth of cocoa trade and global chocolate consumption (i.e., the seventeenth century and later). Regulations were introduced to tax cocoa trade and chocolate production, both in Europe in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries and in post-colonial Africa. Other regulations protected consumers against fraud and health risks by imposing standards for the manufacturing (and composition) of chocolate. Differences in regulations caused problems in the process of European integration. Recently, there has been a rapid growth in private standards related to sustainability and ethical principles in cocoa sourcing.
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