This chapter outlines the study of, and provides basic historical and intellectual context for, the study of Aristotle’s Categories in the first centuries BCE. The chapter argues that Andronicus of Rhodes rescued the Categories from obscurity because he believed it was a good beginner’s introduction to Aristotle’s theory of demonstration (ἀπόδειξις). But contemporary and later philosophers’ confusion regarding its subject matter – language, concepts, or reality? – helped to draw further attention to the treatise, fostering the development of subsequent ancient semantics. This chapter explores how the book as a whole treats this narrative.
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