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A Liberal Actor in a Realist World
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A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy

Andreas Goldthau and Nick Sitter


Since 1992 the European Union has put liberalization at the core of its energy policy agenda. This aspiration was very much in line with an international political economy driven by the neo-liberal (Washington) consensus. The central challenge for the EU is that the energy world has changed, while the EU has not. The rise of Asian energy consumers (China, India), more assertive energy producers (Russia), and the threat of climate change have securitized the IPE of energy, and turned it more “realist.” The main research question is therefore: What does a liberal actor do in a realist world? The ... More

Keywords: European Union, regulatory state, energy, international political economy, Regulatory Power Europe

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2015 Print ISBN-13: 9780198719595
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2015 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719595.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Andreas Goldthau, author
Professor, Central European University

Nick Sitter, author
Professor, Central European University