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History of Christian Dogmaby Ferdinand Christian Baur$
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Peter C. Hodgson

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198719250

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719250.001.0001

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Introduction

Introduction

Chapter:
Introduction
Source:
History of Christian Dogma
Author(s):
Peter C. Hodgson
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719250.003.0015

With the Reformation, a fundamental break in the history of dogma occurs with the attempt to make an entirely new beginning and renew dogma from the primary sources of the gospel. But it is impossible to return to a now-vanished form of consciousness, and the Reformation is in fact a progression to a new principle, the principle of Protestantism, which opposes the principle of Catholicism. Protestantism is as internal as Catholicism is external; its fundamental idea is the unconditional worth of individuals, who are conscious of themselves as being free, self-determining ethical subjects. But Protestants also know themselves to be just as unconditionally dependent on God and divine grace. This internal tension leads to a split into two main forms, Lutheran and Reformed. The first part of this period observes these two in their original formulations and later hardened orthodoxies. Socinianism and Arminianism arose in protest. The major figures are Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin, and Zwingli.

Keywords:   Reformation, Protestant principle, Catholicism, Socinianism, Arminianism, Martin Luther, Phillip Melanchthon, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli

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