With the Reformation, a fundamental break in the history of dogma occurs with the attempt to make an entirely new beginning and renew dogma from the primary sources of the gospel. But it is impossible to return to a now-vanished form of consciousness, and the Reformation is in fact a progression to a new principle, the principle of Protestantism, which opposes the principle of Catholicism. Protestantism is as internal as Catholicism is external; its fundamental idea is the unconditional worth of individuals, who are conscious of themselves as being free, self-determining ethical subjects. But Protestants also know themselves to be just as unconditionally dependent on God and divine grace. This internal tension leads to a split into two main forms, Lutheran and Reformed. The first part of this period observes these two in their original formulations and later hardened orthodoxies. Socinianism and Arminianism arose in protest. The major figures are Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin, and Zwingli.
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