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Oxford Studies in Experimental PhilosophyVolume 1$
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Joshua Knobe, Tania Lombrozo, and Shaun Nichols

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198718765

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718765.001.0001

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A Scientific Case for Conceptual Dualism*

A Scientific Case for Conceptual Dualism*

The Problem of Consciousness and the Opposing Domains Hypothesis

(p.173) 7 A Scientific Case for Conceptual Dualism*
Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy

Anthony I. Jack

Oxford University Press

For centuries philosophers have suggested that it may not be possible to explain human conscious experience purely in terms of physical processes. This chapter reviews evidence from cognitive neuroscience and individual difference measures which supports this view, and develops a theoretical account of both the explanatory gap and belief in ontological dualism. It is argued that our cognitive structure links our understanding of phenomenal experience to moral concern for others, and that this empathetic mode of understanding is in tension with an empirical mode understanding. The evidence suggests that we are not cognitively capable of forming a single unified world view which recognizes both persons and the sub-personal processes of the mind. Implications for philosophical and psychological approaches to the mind are briefly discussed.

Keywords:   consciousness, explanatory gap, mind-body problem, default mode network, task positive network, anti-correlated networks, psychopathy, callous affect, empathetic concern, dehumanizing

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