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Our Lady of the NationsApparitions of Mary in 20th-Century Catholic Europe$
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Chris Maunder

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198718383

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718383.001.0001

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Immaculate and Sorrowful Mary

Immaculate and Sorrowful Mary

Apparitions 1830–1917

(p.18) 2 Immaculate and Sorrowful Mary
Our Lady of the Nations

Chris Maunder

Oxford University Press

This chapter briefly discusses themes in nineteenth-century Marian apparitions without which those in the twentieth century cannot be fully understood. Three major templates for apparitions in the modern period are introduced: Lourdes, Fátima, and then a tradition of apparitions with apocalyptic messages that became more urgent and vibrant from the 1960s. This leads the discussion to particular apparitions, starting with Fátima, perhaps the most famous apparition shrine in twentieth-century Catholic history. Originally, the major concerns of its pilgrims were the anticlericalism of the Portuguese Republic and the First World War. The details of the Fátima apparitions and the early development of the cult in the national context provide an important precedent for the various visionary events that come later and illustrate apparition cults in general.

Keywords:   Portugal, republicanism, European history, Catholicism, apparition types, Lourdes, Fátima

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