(p.271) Appendix The Historiography
(p.271) Appendix The Historiography
The present book is firmly rooted in recent work by scholars such as Solomon Grayzel, Shlomo Simonsohn, Kenneth Stow, Edward Synan, Anna Abulafia, Nora Berend, Peter Browe, Robert Chazan, Jeremy Cohen, Mark Cohen, Gilbert Dahan, Alfred Haverkamp, William Chester Jordan, Gavin Langmuir, and Miri Rubin, all of whom have contributed greatly to our understanding of the social and legal status of Jewish communities in Christian Europe during the High Middle Ages, especially with reference to increasing charges of blood libel and host desecration, the growth of both Christian and Jewish polemic, and the effect on Jewish communities of pogroms perpetrated by crusaders on their way to take part in crusades, both to the Near East and within Europe. Particularly relevant to my own research have been the writings of Grayzel, Simonsohn, and Stow.
For reasons of space I can only list some of the most important books in this scholarly tradition. In 1965 Edward Synan produced The Popes and the Jews in the Middle Ages (New York, London, 1965) which has remained an important piece of scholarship to this day and which has certainly influenced this study. Kenneth Stow has written extensively on Jewish–Christian relations—for example his book Jewish Dogs: An Image and its Interpreters: Continuity in the Catholic-Jewish Encounter (Stanford, 2006)—and he is the only recent historian to have examined papal–Jewish relations in any real depth in English. His overriding concern, however, has been with the early modern period: hence Kenneth Stow, Conversion, Christian Hebraism and Hebrew Prayer in the Sixteenth Century, Hebrew Union College Annual, 47 (1976); Catholic Thought and Papal Jewry Policy, 1555–1593 (New York, 1977); The Jews in Rome, 2 vols. ed. K. Stow (Leiden, New York, 1995–1997), and Jewish Life in Early Modern Rome: Challenge, Conversion and Private Life (Aldershot, 2007). Stow’s two monographs specifically on medieval Europe are The ‘1007 Anonymous’ and Papal Sovereignty: Jewish Perceptions of the Papacy and Papal Policy in the High Middle Ages (Cincinnati, 1984) and Alienated Minority: the Jews and Medieval Latin Europe (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). The former discusses both papal attitudes to the Jews and Jewish perceptions of the papacy, but in a limited context, largely in relation to a single eleventh-century chronicle. In any case, Stow’s book—written in the 1980s—is now relatively out of date—there have been substantial advances in the study of Jewish–Christian relations since its composition.
The aim of my own book is not simply to complement such previous scholarship, but to re-focus the existing awareness of historians through attending to detail on central but often neglected themes with regard to specifically papal–Jewish relations. Works especially relevant to this theme are those by Anna Abulafia: Christians and Jews in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance (London, New York, 1995), Christians and Jews in Dispute: Disputational Literature and the Rise of Anti-Judaism in the West (c.1000–1150) (Aldershot, 1998), Religious Violence between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives, ed. A. S. Abulafia (Basingstoke, 2002), and most recently Christian-Jewish Relations 1000–1300: Jews in the Service of Medieval Christendom (Harlow, 2011). All these books are concerned with different types of contact between Christians and Jews: intellectual, ideological, economic, political, and religious.
(p.272) Robert Chazan’s seminal works—Medieval Jewry in Northern France: A Political and Social History (Baltimore, London, 1973), Church, State and Jew in the Middle Ages, ed. R. Chazan (New York, 1980), European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley, London, 1987), Daggers of Faith: Thirteenth-Century Christian Missionizing and Jewish Response (Berkeley, 1989), Barcelona and Beyond: the Disputation of 1263 and its Aftermath (Berkeley, Oxford, 1992), In the Year 1096: the First Crusade and the Jews (Philadelphia, 1996), Medieval Stereotypes and Modern Anti-Semitism (Berkeley, London, 1997), God, Humanity and History: the Hebrew First Crusade Narratives (Berkeley, 2000), and Fashioning Jewish Identity in Medieval Western Christendom (Cambridge, 2004), The Jews of Medieval Western Christendom, 1000–1500 (Cambridge, 2006), The Trial of the Talmud: Paris, 1240. Hebrew Texts translated by John Friedman, Latin Texts translated by Jean Cornell Hoff; Historical Essay by Robert Chazan (Toronto, 2013)—deal with a wide range of issues including the impact of the First Crusade on Jewish communities and the effects of Christian missionizing and disputations. Yet they do not seek to analyse in depth the particular relationship between the papacy and Jewish communities.
There are also the seminal works of Jeremy Cohen. These include The Friars and the Jews: the Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism (Ithaca, 1982), Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict: from Late Antiquity to the Reformation, ed. J. Cohen (New York, London, 1991), From Witness to Witchcraft: Jews and Judaism in Medieval Christian Thought, ed. J. Cohen (Wiesbaden, 1996), Living Letters of the Law: Ideas of the Jew in Medieval Christianity (Berkeley, London, 1999), and Sanctifying the Name of God: Jewish Martyrs and Jewish Memories of the First Crusade (Philadelphia, 2004). Their primary concern is the impact of the thirteenth-century mendicant movements on Jewish communities, intellectual exchanges between Jews and Christians, and the fall-out for the Jews from the First Crusade.
Other important monographs deal with topics both specifically and more indirectly related to my own. These include William Chester Jordan’s The French Monarchy and the Jews: from Philip Augustus to the Last of the Capetians (Philadelphia, 1989) on Capetian–Jewish relations and the eventual expulsion of Jews from medieval France, and Mark Cohen’s Under Crescent and Cross: the Jews in the Middle Ages (Princeton, 1994), which explores the experience of Jewish communities under Muslim as well as Christian rule. Miri Rubin’s Gentile Tales: the Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews (New Haven, CT, London, 1999) has been extremely useful on Christian charges of blood libel and host desecration and Nora Berend’s At the Gate of Christendom: Jews, Muslims and ‘Pagans’ in Medieval Hungary, c.1000–c.1300 (Cambridge, 2001) has aided medieval comparisons between Jews and Muslims. Gavin Langmuir’s Toward A Definition of Antisemitism (Berkeley, Oxford, 1990) has helped clarify concepts of ‘anti-Judaism’ and ‘anti-semitism’.
I have also learnt much from Peter Browe’s Die Judenmission in Mittelalter und die Päpste (Rome,1942), Gilbert Dahan’s Les Intellectuels chrétiens et les Juifs au moyen âge (Paris, 1990), La Polémique chrétienne contre le Judaisme au moyen âge (Paris, 1991), Robert Chazan’s ‘The Hebrew Report of the Trial of the Talmud: Information and Consolation’, in Le Brulement du Talmud à Paris, 1242–1244, ed. G. Dahan (Paris, 1999), pp.79–93, Alfred Haverkamp’s Juden und Christen zur Zeit der Kreuzzüge, Vorträge und Forschungen 47, Konstanzer Arbeitskreis für mittelalterliche Geschichte (Sigmaringen, 1999), Robin Mundill’s England’s Jewish Solution. Experiment and Expulsion, 1262–1290 (Cambridge, 1998), Judah Galinsky’s ‘The Different Hebrew Versions of the “Talmud Trial” of 1240 in Paris’, in New Perspectives on Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. E. Carlebach and J. Schachter (Leiden, Boston, 2012), pp.109–40, René Moulinas’s Les Juifs du Pape: Avignon et le Comtat Venaissin (Paris, 1992), and Marie Therese Champagne’s first-class Ph.D. dissertation: The Relationship between the Papacy and (p.273) the Jews in Twelfth-Century Rome: Papal Attitudes toward Biblical Judaism and Contemporary European Jewry (Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University, 2005).
Throughout the book I have used the editions of papal letters of Grayzel and Simonsohn, as well as Simonsohn’s masterly summary: The Apostolic See and the Jews. History (Toronto, 1991) which accompanies his six volumes of documents. In the nineteenth century Emil Friedberg compiled complete editions of the Decretum, the Quinque antiquae compilationes, and Raymond of Peñafort’s Liber extra decretalium, and I have used these for this study. Also invaluable have been Gratian, ‘Concordia discordantium canonum’, Corpus iuris canonici, ed. E. Friedberg, Vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1879), Gregory IX, Pope, ‘Liber extra decretalium’, Corpus iuris canonici, ed. E. Friedberg, Vol. 2 (Leipzig, 1881), pp.5–928, and the Quinque compilationes antiquae, ed. E. Friedberg (Leipzig, 1882). A reliable, if early, edition which I have also used is Innocent IV, Apparatus super quiinque libris decretalium (Turin, 1581). A lack of nineteenth- and twentieth-century editions of other important thirteenth-century texts of formal canon law concerned with heretics and Jews has often meant reliance on fifteenth- and sixteenth-century editions. Here catalogues such as John Oates, A Catalogue of the Fifteenth-Century Printed Books in the University Library, Cambridge (Cambridge, 1954), have been invaluable.
With respect to conciliar legislation, including Church councils held in the south of France during the period of the Albigensian Crusade, the standard collected edition used by historians remains Mansi’s Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, published in the eighteenth century and based on the earlier collections of editors such as that of Labbé. There are also a number of much more recent editions and studies of conciliar legislation pertaining in particular to the Lateran Councils of the period, for example, Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, Vol. 1: Nicaea I to Lateran V, ed. N. Tanner (London, 1990), and Jacques Berlioz, Identifier sources et citations, L’Atelier du médiéviste 1 (Turnhout, 1994). (p.274)