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Handbook of ValuePerspectives from Economics, Neuroscience, Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology$
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Tobias Brosch and David Sander

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198716600

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716600.001.0001

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Basic individual values: sources and consequences

Basic individual values: sources and consequences

(p.63) Chapter 4 Basic individual values: sources and consequences
Handbook of Value

Shalom H. Schwartz

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents the dominant theory of individual values in social psychology and sociology. Values are broad motivational goals that express what is important to people. The chapter identifies ten basic, motivationally distinct values that people in virtually all cultures implicitly recognize. It then presents the circular continuum that captures the relations of conflict and compatibility among these values and explicates the dynamics underlying this near-universal structure. Although the nature of values and their structure may be universal, individuals differ substantially in the importance they attribute to the values. The chapter presents mechanisms through which values influence decisions and behavior. It clarifies how tradeoffs between relevant competing values underlie behavior and attitudes, often outside conscious awareness. It then illustrates how specific value priorities relate to numerous behaviors and attitudes. It concludes with an overview of the origins of individual differences in values and of value stability and change.

Keywords:   value priorities, value conflict, value compatibility, circular motivational continuum, value features, value-behavior relations, value-attitude relations, value stability and change

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