This chapter reviews the literature on how values influence individual decisions about the environment. Theory suggests that three values—self-interest, altruism toward other humans, and altruism toward other species and the biosphere—will influence decision-making. These three values have been reliably measured in survey instruments around the world. Most studies support the theoretical expectation that altruism, and especially altruism toward other species and the biosphere, influence environmentally consequential decisions, but that influence is often indirect through identity, beliefs, and norms. Overall, research on environmental values has produced well-developed theory, reliable and flexible measurement strategies, and a substantial body of empirical results confirming the influence of values on environmental decisions.
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