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Implementation and World PoliticsHow International Norms Change Practice$
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Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198712787

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712787.001.0001

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Peacekeeping in the Congo

Peacekeeping in the Congo

Implementation of the Protection of Civilians Norm

(p.160) 9 Peacekeeping in the Congo
Implementation and World Politics

Emily Paddon

Oxford University Press

Since 1999 the protection of civilians (POC) has become a core norm of United Nations peacekeeping. Problematically, however, implementation of the norm continues to be highly inconsistent, with civilians being protected by peacekeepers in certain instances and not in others. This chapter critically analyses implementation of the POC norm in the context of the UN peacekeeping mission in the Congo, the Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies en Congo (MONUC). This within-case analysis of compliance over time demonstrates how the interplay of structural factors with the agency of key actors explains the observed variance in peacekeeping practices. Specifically, it highlights the central role played by differentiated risk perceptions, moderated by capacity, of actors at all levels of the mission. These differences engendered contestation among UN officials, and meant that certain individuals had greater influence to determine when and how the POC norm was implemented. The end result was the inconsistent implementation of the norm over the course of MONUC’s deployment.

Keywords:   norms, implementation, contestation, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, United Nations, risk, capacity, Congo

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