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Implementation and World PoliticsHow International Norms Change Practice$
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Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198712787

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712787.001.0001

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Norms and the Politics of Implementation

(p.269) 15 Conclusions
Implementation and World Politics

Alexander Betts

Phil Orchard

Oxford University Press

This conclusion re-evaluates the book’s theoretical framework in light of the findings of the empirical chapters, and considers what the chapters mean collectively for research and policy in three areas. First, the conclusion highlights patterns of dynamic contestation which exist through norm contestations at the domestic level opened up by implementation processes. These can include feedback to the international level. It also removes a clear endpoint for the norm introduction process, suggesting instead that contestation can be an iterative process. Second, it points to the importance of material and ideational structures for constraining, enabling, and shaping what norms do in practice. Finally, it argues that implementation processes are affected by the form of norm—whether treaty-based, principle, or policy—and that complex norms, difficult norms with a range of prescriptions, are more likely to be introduced first as less formal principle norms.

Keywords:   implementation, institutionalization, localization, compliance, feedback effects, ongoing contestations

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