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Determining the Shakespeare CanonArden of Faversham and A Lover's Complaint$

MacDonald P. Jackson

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780198704416

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704416.001.0001

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(p.219) Appendix 1: Literature Online Data for Chapter 1

(p.219) Appendix 1: Literature Online Data for Chapter 1

Source:
Determining the Shakespeare Canon
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Part A

Below are recorded Quarrel Scene phrases and collocations that are found, through Literature Online searches, not more than five times in drama of the period 1580–1600. Lines from the Quarrel Scene of Arden of Faversham are quoted (in italics) from Wine’s edition, with verse line-divisions marked and with the line number(s) in parentheses following the quotation. Other plays are quoted from Literature Online as modernized by myself, except that excerpts from Shakespeare match the Riverside edition; in these citations the beginnings of lines are marked only by capitalization, and act, scene, and line references are not provided, since these are not available in the database. An em-dash is used to indicate a change of speaker. When only the Arden of Faversham phrase is quoted, the other play’s verbal agreement with that quotation is exact.

The assignment of plays to authors is in some cases doubtful. When words and phrases appear to be listed two or more times, this is because the citations cover different rare links. Thus in the first item, ‘disturbèd thoughts’, this exact locution is found both in the Quarrel Scene and The Troublesome Reign of King John. In the second item, where ‘disturbèd thoughts’ appears again as part of the Quarrel Scene locution, it does so as a reinforcement of the broader link with two plays in which mental turmoil or discontent ‘drives’ somebody into solitude, while the actual phrase ‘troubled mind’ is used in expressing this idea in both the Quarrel Scene and Romeo and Juliet. Other phrases or collocations within the opening lines of the Quarrel Scene provide further rare links.

  • Disturbèd thoughts (1): Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; the ‘trouble’ of Mosby’s ‘moody brain’, which ‘feebles’ his ‘body’, is similar to the way that the ‘disturbed thoughts’ ‘Confound my wits, and dull my senses’ in Troublesome Reign.

  • Disturbèd thoughts drives me from company|...Continual trouble of my moody brain|...troubled mind is stuffed with discontent (1–10): ‘A discontented humour drave me thence’, Peele, The Battle of Alcazar; ‘A troubled mind drive me to walk abroad’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; these are the only instances of negative mental states ‘driving’ somebody into solitude.

  • (p.220) trouble of my...brain (3): ‘troubled brain’, Hughes and others, The Misfortunes of Arthur.1

  • moody brain (3): ‘moody thoughts’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; the only example of moody brain, mind, or thoughts.

  • moody...discontent (3–10): ‘moody discontented’, Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; Shakespeare, Richard III; there are no other collocations of ‘moody’ and ‘discontent(ed)’ within the space of sixty words.

  • Feebles my body (4): ‘feeble body’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI.

  • nips me as the bitter northeast wind|Doth check the tender blossoms in the spring (5–6): ‘nipped the blossoms of our budding spring’, Anon., The Pilgrimage to Parnassus; ‘If frosts...Nip not the...blossoms’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; two other examples juxtaposing ‘blossoms’ and the verb ‘nip’ (in Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy and King Leir) relate specifically to ‘winter’ cold, as does Greene’s ‘nipping winter frosts’ in James IV, cited by Wine, 72 n. 5–6; since the point of the Arden image is the premature destruction of budding spring blossoms, the following passages are more closely parallel: ‘Cold news for me...Thus are my blossoms blasted in the bud’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘a May blossom with pernicious winds...sullied’, Shakespeare and others, Edward III; ‘This bitter wind must nip somebody’s spring’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; ‘Which is a flower in spring may soon be nipped|With the least frost of cold adversity’, Chettle, Dekker, and Haughton, Patient Grissil; these are all counted in the calculations because their points of verbal contact with Arden differ.

  • the bitter northeast wind (5): ‘the blasting north-east wind’, Shakespeare and others, Edward III; ‘the northeast wind...blew bitterly against our faces’, Shakespeare, Richard II.

  • check the tender blossoms (6): ‘check the blossoms of delight’, Anon., Mucedorus.

  • tender blossoms (6): Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine.

  • Well fares the man, howe’er his cates do taste, |That tables not with foul suspicion;|And he but pines amongst his delicates|Whose troubled mind is stuffed with discontent.|My golden time was when I had no gold;|Though then I wanted, yet I slept secure (7–12): ‘His wonted sleep under a fresh tree’s shade, All which secure and sweetly he enjoys, Is far beyond a prince’s delicates—His viands sparkling in a golden cup, His body couched in a curious bed, When care, mistrust, and treason waits on him’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘where care lodges, sleep will never lie; But where unbruised youth with unstuff’d brain Doth couch his limbs, there golden sleep doth reign’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; the 3 Henry VI passage shares with the Arden one the specific words ‘sleep’, ‘secure’, ‘delicates’, and ‘golden’ and the ideas of eating and sleeping without mistrust; the Romeo and Juliet passage shares (p.221) ‘unstuffed’ of the mind or brain, ‘golden’, and the idea of sleeping (‘slept’ and ‘sleep’) without care. These are easily the closest parallels to Arden, though ‘sleep/slept/sleepest secure’ and ‘troubled mind’ are common.2

  • howe’er his cates do taste (7): ‘cates...taste’, Anon., The Thracian Wonder; Chapman, The Blind Beggar of Alexandria; ‘taste...cates’, Anon., The Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll (twice).

  • foul suspicion (8): Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia.

  • golden time (11): Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia; Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘golden times’, Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV.3

  • My daily toil begat me night’s repose (13): ‘Winding up days with toil, and nights with sleep’, Shakespeare, Henry V, in a similar context of the advantages of the simple life.

  • My night’s repose made daylight fresh to me (14): ‘the days be fresh’, Greville, Alaham; ‘Goodly day toward, and a fresh morning’, Jonson, Every Man in His Humour; ‘the freshest summer’s day’, Shakespeare and others, Edward III; ‘fresh days’, Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

  • night’s repose (14): the conjunction of ‘night’ and the noun ‘repose’ occurs only in ‘Good night, and good repose’, Shakespeare, Julius Caesar; ‘Sport and repose lock from me day and night’, Shakespeare, Hamlet; the verb ‘repose’ is frequently juxtaposed to ‘night’.

  • But, since I climbed the top bough of the tree|And sought to build my nest among the clouds, |Each gentlest airy gale doth shake my bed|And makes me dread my downfall to the earth (15–18): ‘They that stand high have many blasts that shake them, And if they fall, they dash themselves to pieces...but I was born so high, Our aery buildeth in the cedar’s top And dallies with the wind...cloudy...aery’s nest’, Shakespeare, Richard III; ‘A lofty cedar tree...On whose top branches kingly eagles perch...the highest bough of all’, Marlowe, Edward II; ‘Thus yields the cedar...Whose arms gave shelter to the princely eagle, ...Whose top-branch over-peer’d Jove’s spreading tree’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; the Richard III passage has multiple links with the Arden lines; the other two are the only ones in which the ‘top’ branch or bough of a tree is associated with nesting (or, in Marlowe, perching); both, like the Arden lines, have a figurative meaning.

  • climbed the top bough of the tree (15): ‘catched at the highest bough’, Dekker, Old Fortunatus (with a similar figurative sense); ‘tree tops’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet.

  • climbed...the tree (15): ‘he climbed a tree’, Chettle and Munday, The Death of Robert Earl of Huntingdon; ‘climbs up a tree’, The Thracian Wonder; ‘wouldst climb a tree’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI.

  • climbed...to build my nest (15–16): ‘climb’d unto their nest’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘must climb a bird’s nest’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; the only juxtapositions of the verb ‘climb’ and ‘nest’.

  • (p.222) Sought to build my nest among the clouds (16): ‘covet to build thy nest in the sun’, Lyly, Sapho and Phao; ‘among the clouds’, Heywood, The Four Prentices of London.

  • Each...airy gale doth shake my bed (17): ‘by whirlwinds shaken’, Anon., An Alarum for London; ‘a wind Not of sufficient power to shake a reed’, Heywood, 1 Edward IV; ‘wind-shaken’, Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘as mountains are for winds, That shake not, though they blow perpetually’, Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew.

  • gentlest airy gale (17): ‘gentle gale’, Greene, Selimus; Marlowe, Edward II; Peele, The Battle of Alcazar.4

  • But whither doth contemplation carry me? (19): ‘O whither doth my passion carry me’, Marston, Histriomastix.

  • The way I seek to find (20): ‘Seeking a way...Not knowing how to find’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘If thou seekst that way, there thou shalt find her’, Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abingdon; ‘How could he see his way to seek out you?’, The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

  • I seek to find (20): Chapman, The Blind Beggar of Alexandria.

  • where pleasure dwells (20): Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London.

  • hedged behind me (21): ‘Had hedged your person’, Greene, Selimus; ‘England, hedg’d in with the main’, Shakespeare, King John; ‘To hedge me in’, Shakespeare, Julius Caesar; ‘hedg’d me’, Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice; these are the only examples of ‘hedge’ used as a verb meaning ‘close, enclose’.

  • perish thou (23): Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage.

  • Greene doth...weed thee up (24): ‘So one by one we’ll weed them all at last’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘But say this weed her love from Valentine’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; the only instances of ‘weed’ used figuratively as a verb.

  • ear the land (24): Shakespeare, Richard II.5

  • To make my harvest nothing but pure corn (25): ‘That thrust his sickle in my harvest corn’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda; ‘I to my harvest whose corn is now come out of the blade’, Lyly, Love’s Metamorphosis.

  • And for his pains I’ll hive him up awhile | And, after, smother him to have his wax; | Such bees as Greene must never live to sting (26–8): ‘When like the bee tolling from every flower The virtuous sweets, Our thighs pack’d with wax, our mouths with honey, We bring it to the hive, and like the bees, Are murd’red for our pains’, Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV; a multiple parallel: ‘for his/our pains’, ‘hive’, ‘wax’, ‘bees’; three of the Arden elements (‘hive(s)’, ‘bees’, ‘sting(s)’) are present in ‘He is (p.223) not worthy of the honey-comb That shuns the hives because the bees have stings’, Anon., Locrine.6

  • wax...bees...sting (27–8): ‘bees in swarms, and bring forth wax and honey’, Lyly, Love’s Metamorphosis; ‘Some say the bee stings, but I say, ’tis the bee’s wax’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; the only places in which wax is mentioned in connection with bees; the Shakespeare parallel is the closer, since it also mentions the sting.

  • Such bees as Greene must never live to sting (28): ‘Let not this wasp outlive, us both to sting’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus; the only example of ‘(out)live...to sting’; ‘Injurious wasps, to feed on such sweet honey, And kill the bees that yield it with your stings’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; though there are more than five examples of ‘bees’ collocated with ‘stings’, this one is closely related to the Arden passage because of the shared idea of killing bees that yield something desirable.

  • Who, when they shall see (31): ‘who when they see’, Chettle and Munday, The Death of Robert Earl of Huntingdon; Daniel, Cleopatra; Shakespeare, Richard II.

  • sit in Arden’s seat (31): ‘sit in friendship’s seat’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda; ‘sit in the seat’, Jonson, A Tale of a Tub.

  • insult upon (32): Dekker, Old Fortunatus; Heywood, The Four Prentices of London; Jonson, Every Man in His Humour.

  • for my meed (32): ‘for his meed’, Shakespeare, Richard III; the only other example of ‘for [possessive pronoun] meed’ used ironically.

  • fright me (33): Anon., The Tragedy of Caesar and Pompey; Marston, Antonio’s Revenge; Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream; Shakespeare, Julius Caesar.

  • I’ll none of that (34): Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy; Marlowe, The Jew of Malta; Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘We’ll none of that’ (where ‘We’ means ‘I’), Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

  • I can cast a bone|To make these curs pluck out each other’s throat (34–35): ‘When two dogs are at strife for a bone, it is commonly seen That the third comes and takes it and wipes their mouths clean’, Munday, Fedele and Fortunio;7 ‘England now is left To tug and scamble, and to part by th’ teeth The unowed interest of proud swelling state. Now for the bare-pick’d bone of majesty Doth dogged war bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in the gentle eyes of peace’, Shakespeare, King John; the dog-fight over a bone is vividly implicit in the imagery of the King John passage, (p.224) which shares with Arden a ferocity absent from Munday’s lines; although there is no bone in the following lines, they are linked to Arden by the implicit dog image and the attack on the ‘throat’: ‘What? Were you snarling all before I came, Ready to catch each other by the throat’, Shakespeare, Richard III.

  • but she’s myself (37): ‘He is myself’, Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia; Mary Sidney Herbert, Antonius; ‘Silvia is myself’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; the first two examples use a pronoun, as does Arden, but the third is in another way closer to Arden in connecting a woman to a male ‘myself’.

  • And holy church rites makes us two but one (38): ‘Till Holy Church incorporate two in one’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; ‘that great vow Which did incorporate and make us one’, Shakespeare, Julius Caesar; ‘if we two be one’, Shakespeare, The Comedy of Errors; ‘man and wife, being two, are one in love’, Shakespeare, Henry V; in Errors, Adriana is also speaking of man and wife, ‘undividable incorporate’, so that she equates Antipholus (‘thyself’) with herself.

  • I may not trust you (39): ‘I may not trust thee’, Shakespeare, King John.

  • ’tis fearful sleeping in a serpent’s bed (42): ‘a bed of crawling serpents’, Anon., Captain Thomas Stukeley; ‘sleeping in my orchard, A serpent stung me’, Shakespeare, Hamlet; ‘do thy best To pluck this crawling serpent from my breast! Ay me, for pity! What a dream was here! Lysander, look how I do quake with fear’, Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream; ‘Were there a serpent seen, with forked tongue, That slily glided towards your Majesty, It were but necessary you were wak’d, Lest being suffer’d in that harmful slumber, The mortal worm might make the sleep eternal’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; Stukeley affords the only ‘bed’ of ‘serpents’; the Shakespearean examples all associate the danger of the serpent with sleeping, Hermia having just awoken in Dream, which also has ‘fear’ linking with Arden’s ‘fearful’.8

  • I will cleanly rid my hands of her (43): ‘rid my hands of him’, Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV; ‘rid his hands of her’, Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew; ‘rid my hands of them’, Anon., Fair Em; ‘rid our hands of this fellow’, Anon., The Famous Victories of Henry V.

  • sad and passionate (45): Shakespeare, King John.

  • Make me partaker of thy pensiveness (46): ‘Make us partakers of a little gain’, Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; ‘Wish me partaker in thy happiness’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

  • Fire divided burns with lesser force.—|But I will dam that fire in my breast|Till by the force thereof my heart consume (47–9): ‘Fire that’s closest kept burns most of all’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; ‘love’s hot fire...The more thou dam’st it up, the more it burns’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; ‘Sorrow concealed, like an oven stopp’d, Doth burn the heart to cinders where it is’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus; these are the only passages containing (p.225) the central idea that the enclosed (or dammed up) fire burns most intensely; fires within the breast are common.9

  • lesser force (47): Marlowe, Edward II.

  • like to a cannon’s burst|Discharged against a ruinated wall (51–2): ‘Hath planted a double cannon in the door Ready to discharge it upon you’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda; ‘a cannon’s crack Discharged against the battlements of heaven’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; ‘ruinate the noble Theban wall’, Newton, Thebais.10

  • relenting heart (53): Heywood, 2 Edward IV.

  • Thou know’st it well (55): Shakespeare, Richard III.

  • ’tis thy policy|To (55–6): ‘it is your policy To’, Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; ‘’tis but his policy to’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘It is his policy to’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘’tis some policy To’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; ‘it is King Edward’s policy To’, Peele, Edward I.

  • To forge distressful looks to wound a breast (56): ‘forge alluring looks, And feign deep oaths to wound poor silly maids’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda.11

  • to wound a breast|Where lies a heart that dies when thou art sad (56–7): ‘needs must wound thy breast For it hath wellnigh slain my heart’, Peele, Edward I; the closest parallel.12

  • a heart that dies (57): ‘the heart that dies’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus; although the idea of a heart dying occurs more than five times, this is the only example of the exact phrase, and ‘thy angry frown’ causes the dying in Titus, while ‘looks’ cause it in Arden.

  • when thou art sad (57): Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage.

  • It is not love that loves to anger love.—|It is not love that loves to murder love (58–9): ‘They do not love that do not show their love.—O, they love least that let men know their love’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; ‘I cannot leave to love, and yet I do; But here I leave to love where I should love’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; ‘This hand, which for thy love did kill thy love, Shall for thy love kill a far truer love’, Shakespeare, Richard III; ‘Love loving not itself, none other can’, Shakespeare, Richard II; the first three examples share with Arden (p.226) repetition of ‘love’ and play on the word, with the third also mentioning killing; the final example, like the Arden lines, exposes a paradox.13

  • How mean you that? (60): Anon., King Leir; Greene, James IV; Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour; Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew (twice).

  • conceal the rest (63): Greene, Orlando Furioso.

  • Lest that my words be carried with the wind (64): ‘good wind, blow not a word away’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; ‘for fear the privy whispering of the wind Convey our words amongst unfriendly ears’, Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy.

  • published in the world to both our shames (65): ‘publish to the world’, Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London; Munday and others, Sir Thomas More; ‘my published shame’, Peele, David and Bethsabe.

  • let our springtime wither (66): ‘when it begins to spring, I’ll let it wither while it is in bud’, Chettle and Munday, The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon; ‘our spring-time’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI.

  • loathsome weeds (67): Anon., A Knack to Know a Knave.

  • what hath passed betwixt us (68): ‘what hath pass’d between me and Ford’s wife’, Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor; ‘what hath pass’d between you and Claudio’, Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing.

  • I blush and tremble at the thoughts (69): ‘blush...and tremble at the’, Greene, John of Bordeaux; ‘makes me tremble at the thought of it’, Anon., Locrine.

  • my former happy life (71): ‘his former life’, Anon., The Famous Victories of Henry V; ‘your former life’, Anon., The Famous Victories of Henry V; ‘my former life’, Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies.

  • honest Arden’s wife (73): ‘an honest plain carpenter’s wife’, Munday and others, Sir Thomas More; ‘an honest man’s wife’, Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV.14

  • honest wife (73): Haughton, Grim the Collier; ‘honest loyal wife’, Heywood, 1 Edward IV.

  • sland’rous to (75): Shakespeare, King John; in both cases the meaning is, unusually, ‘disgraceful’.15

  • to all my kin (75): Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘all my kin’, Newton, Thebais; Anon., A Knack to Know a Knave.

  • (p.227) Even in my forehead is thy name engraven (76): ‘doth engrave Upon thy brows the drift of thy disgrace, Thy new-vowed love in sight of God and men’, Greene, James IV.16

  • A mean artificer, that low-born name (77): ‘a mean and low-born maid’, Anon., The Maid’s Metamorphosis; ‘low-born’, Daniel, Cleopatra; the only examples of the compound; ‘Another lean unwash’d artificer’, Shakespeare, King John; the only contemptuous, snobbish use of ‘artificer’.

  • Woe worth the hapless hour (78): ‘Woe worth this hapless heavy hap’, Newton, Thebais; ‘hapless hour’, Greene, Selimus.

  • let me breathe curses forth (80): ‘What curses breathe these men!’, Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour; ‘the curses which the Furies breathe’, Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine; ‘let the Church, our mother, breathe her curse’, Shakespeare, King John; ‘Thus have you breath’d your curse’, Shakespeare, Richard III; ‘breathe out curses’, Anon., Locrine.

  • stand so nicely at your fame (81): ‘stand upon such nice excuses’, Anon., Edmond Ironside; ‘stand...on nice points’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI.

  • so nicely (81): Greville, Alaham; Shakespeare, Richard II.

  • the credit I have lost (82): ‘hath lost his credit’, Greene, George a Greene; ‘Now is my credit lost’, Greene, James IV.

  • I have neglected (83): Anon., Fair Em.

  • matters of import (83): Anon., Look about You; Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris.

  • an honest maid (88): Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor; ‘honest maid’, Greene, James IV.

  • Whose dowry would have weighed down all thy wealth (89): ‘Her dowry shall weigh equal with a queen’, Shakespeare, King John; ‘no less weight Than Aquitaine, a dowry for a queen’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; ‘Her dowry wealthy’, Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew; the first two are the only passages juxtaposing ‘dowry’ with ‘weigh’ or ‘weight’, and the last the only one juxtaposing ‘dowry’ with ‘wealth’ or ‘wealthy’.

  • weighed down (89): ‘weigheth down’, Anon., The Toublesome Reign of King John; Lyly, Sapho and Phao; ‘weigh down’, Anon., Lust’s Dominion; Greville, Alaham.

  • Whose beauty and demeanour far exceeded thee (90): ‘beauty that exceeds’, Greene, James IV; ‘exceeds her as much in beauty as’, Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing; ‘That...I might in...beauties...Exceed account’, Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice.

  • (p.228) That showed my heart a raven for a dove (97): ‘Who will not change a raven for a dove?’, Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream; ‘Seems he a dove? his feathers are but borrow’d, For he’s disposed as the hateful raven’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘Dove-feather’d raven’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet.17

  • I knew thee not (99): Anon., The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune; ‘I knew not thee’ (‘I knew thee not’ in octavo 1595), Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI.

  • And now the rain hath beaten off thy gilt|Thy worthless copper shows thee counterfeit (100–1): ‘Our gayness and our gilt are all besmirch’d With rainy marching in the painful field’, Shakespeare, Henry V; ‘if you do not all show like gilt twopences to me’, Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV; ‘Iron of Naples hid with English gilt’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; in the first example, as in Arden, rain affects gilt; the other two excerpts apply the image figuratively to persons, as does Arden; three instances of the literal uttering of copper for gold in Wilson’s The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London have not been recorded.18

  • It...mads me (102–3): ‘this mads me’, Dekker, Old Fortunatus; Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abingdon; ‘this...mads me’, Shakespeare, Richard II; ‘he mads me’, Jonson, Every Man in His Humour.

  • how foul thou art (102): ‘how foul she is’, Shakespeare and others, Edward III; ‘How foul it is’, Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV; ‘how foul...is thine image’, Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew.

  • Go, get thee gone (104): Haughton, Grim the Collier; Jonson, A Tale of a Tub; Shakespeare, The Comedy of Errors; Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew (twice); ‘Get thee gone’, without the preceding ‘Go’, is common.

  • I am too good to be thy favourite (105): ‘I am...too good to be your concubine’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘Thou art...Too good to be so’, Shakespeare, Richard II.19

  • find it true (106): Greene, James IV; Haughton, Grim the Collier; Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies.

  • often hath been told (107): ‘Often...told’, Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice.

  • told me by my friends (107): ‘advised...by my friends’, Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour.

  • Nay, hear me speak, Mosby, a word or two;|I’ll bite my tongue if it speak bitterly (110–11): ‘I prithee hear me speak. —You speak too bitterly. —Hear me a word’, Shakespeare, Richard III.

  • Nay, hear me speak (110): ‘Nay, hear them speak’, Anon., A Larum for London; the less exact parallels, ‘Nay, hear me’ and ‘Hear me speak’, are common.

  • (p.229) I’ll bite my tongue (111): ‘bite their tongues’, Lyly, The Woman in the Moon; ‘bite his tongue’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘bite thy tongue’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘bite our tongues’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus.

  • speak bitterly (111): ‘bitterly to speak’, Shakespeare, Richard III.

  • stormy look (113): ‘you have such a February face, |So full of...storm and cloudiness’, Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing; ‘stormy forehead’, Greville, Mustapha; ‘stormy brow’, Marston, Histriomastix; ‘Suffolk’s cloudy brow [expresses] his stormy hate’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; these are the closest parallels, since ‘stormy look’ does not occur.

  • do penance (115): Jonson, Every Man in His Humour; ‘done penance’, Marlowe, Doctor Faustus.

  • prayerbook (116): Heywood, 2 Edward IV; Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; Shakespeare, Richard III; Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice; included as a compound because often printed as two words.

  • holy word (117): Shakespeare, King John; Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris.

  • converted me (117): ‘convert me’, Marlowe, The Jew of Malta.

  • I will tear away the leaves (118): ‘that I’ll tear away’ (where ‘that’ is writing on paper), Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona.20

  • thereon will I chiefly meditate (121): ‘Whereon dost thou chiefly meditate?’, Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy.

  • Wilt thou not hear? (124): ‘Wilt thou not hear thy father?’, Anon., Captain Thomas Stukeley.

  • Why speaks thou not? (125): ‘Why speakst thou not?’, Anon., Look about You; ‘Why speakest thou not’, Chettle and Munday, The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon; Greene, Alphonsus, King of Aragon (twice); Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy.

  • Thou hast been sighted as the eagle is (126): ‘eagle-sighted’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; ‘A lover’s eyes will gaze an eagle blind’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; like Alice Arden’s words, both passages relate to love, and, although the keen vision of the eagle is proverbial, LION yields no further parallels among the plays searched.

  • The fearful hare (127): Anon., The Maid’s Metamorphosis; Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘the fearful flying hare’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘the fearfulness of the hare’, Lyly, Midas.21

  • spoke as smoothly as an orator (128): ‘smooth-tongued orators’, Nashe, Summer’s Last Will and Testament; ‘speak smooth’, Peele, Edward I; ‘smooth and speak him fair’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus.

  • hear or see or speak (129): ‘I hear, I see, I speak’, Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew.

  • (p.230) art thou sensible in (130): ‘Thou art sensible in’, Shakespeare, The Comedy of Errors; ‘sensible in’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; ‘I am...sensible in’, Shakespeare, Hamlet.

  • this little fault (131): ‘a little fault’, Chettle and Munday, The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon; Greene, James IV; Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; ‘little faults’, Shakespeare, Henry V.

  • I deserve not (132): Greene, Selimus.

  • I deserve not Mosby’s muddy looks.|A fount once troubled is not thickened still;|Be clear again, I’ll ne’er more trouble thee (132–4): ‘A woman mov’d is like a fountain troubled, Muddy, ill-seeming, thick, bereft of beauty’, Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew; ‘The purest spring is not so free from mud As I am clear from treason’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘whose filth and dirt Troubles the silver spring where England drinks’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘Thou sheer, immaculate, and silver fountain, From whence this stream through muddy passages Hath held his current and defil’d himself’, Shakespeare, Richard II; ‘Here stands the spring whom you have stain’d with mud’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus; ‘I trouble now the fountain of thy youth, And make it moody’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; within the period, these are the fullest dramatic parallels to Arden’s imagery of muddied waters used figuratively of emotional or moral states; all are counted in the calculations because their verbal links with Arden differ (and they occur in only five plays).22

  • I am a base artificer;|My wings are feathered for a lowly flight (135–6): since Mosby is sarcastically referring to limits on his aspirations, one is reminded of the wings that the artificer Daedalus created for Icarus, and of the image in the prologue to Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus: ‘His waxen wings did mount above his reach, And, melting, heavens conspired his overthrow’; but Shakespeare specifically names Daedalus and Icarus in 3 Henry VI and follows with the line ‘The sun that sear’d the wings of my sweet boy’; otherwise the nearest parallels are ‘mount aloft...And outstrip the feathered fowls in flight’, Anon., King Leir; ‘the wings of my well-tempered verse...thrice haughty flight...Their mounting feathers scorch not with the fire’, Peele, David and Bethsabe; though rather doubtful, all four links are counted in calculations.

  • a base artificer (135): ‘Another lean unwash’d artificer’, Shakespeare, King John.

  • Make love to (138): Jonson, The Case Is Altered; Marlowe, The Jew of Malta; Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew; Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor; Shakespeare, Hamlet.

  • Why, ’tis unpardonable (138): ‘O, ’tis...unpardonable’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI.

  • as gentle as a (140): Dekker, The Shoemakers’ Holiday; Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; ‘gentle as a’: Greene, Selimus.

  • (p.231) too blind (141): Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia.

  • weeds [spring] in gardens (143): ‘weeds have sprung To stain the beauty of our garden plot’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; ‘weeds...[will] o’ergrow the garden’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘our...garden...Is full of weeds’, Shakespeare, Richard II; surprisingly, these are the only juxtapositions (within the range ‘NEAR.50’) of ‘weeds’ and ‘garden’.23

  • roses grow on thorns (143): ‘The rose although in thorny shrubs she spread Is still the rose’, Greene, James IV; ‘Thorns lie in garrison about the roses’, Jonson, Cynthia’s Revels; ‘a red rose from off this thorn’, Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; ‘Hath not thy rose a thorn’, Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; although ‘No rose without a thorn’ is proverbial, these are the only links discovered to plays of 1580–1600.24

  • sweet-set tongue (147): ‘sweet tongue’, Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus; Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; Lyly, Love’s Metamorphosis; ‘sweet tongue’s’, Shakespeare and others, Edward III; ‘tongue so sweet’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; there are other linkings of sweetness and tongues but these are the closest in wording to Arden.

  • forget this quarrel (148): Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI.

  • Then with thy lips seal up this new-made match (150): ‘The duty that I owe unto your Majesty I seal upon the lips of this sweet babe’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘and, lips, O you The doors of breath, seal with a righteous kiss A dateless bargain to engrossing death’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; ‘The match is made, she seals it with a cur’sy’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; the sealing of lips in silence, the sealing of lips with a kiss, and the sealing of contracts with a kiss are common, but the first two parallels cited here are the only ones in which a compact is sealed specifically with ‘lips’, and the third is unique in having in common with the Arden line ‘match’, ‘made’, and ‘seal(s) with’.25

  • seal up this new-made match (150): ‘To seal love’s bonds new made’, Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice; ‘his new-made bride’, Shakespeare and others, 3 Henry VI; ‘the new-made bridegroom’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; the only instances of (p.232) ‘new-made’ in connection with marriage or betrothal, with ‘seal’ providing a further link in the Merchant lines.

  • How now, Bradshaw, what’s the news with you? (152): ‘How now, sirrah, what’s the news with you?’, Anon., Guy Earl of Warwick (twice); Haughton, Englishmen for My Money; ‘How now, sir boy, what is the news with you?’, Heywood, 1 Edward IV; the only instances of the formula with ‘How now’, as distinct from ‘Now’ (in The Shoemaker’s Holiday or ‘And now’ (in Hamlet).

  • importuned me to give you (154): ‘importune you To let him’, Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona; ‘importune you To keep’, Shakespeare and others, Edward III; the only examples of the verb ‘importune’ followed by pronoun, ‘to’, and verb.

  • a cup of beer (155): Anon., Thomas Lord Cromwell; Anon., Club Law; Chettle, Day, and Haughton, The Blind Beggar of Bednal Green; Nashe, Summer’s Last Will and Testament; ‘a cup o’ thy small beer’, Jonson, Every Man in His Humour.

  • ’Tis almost supper time (156): Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies.

  • We have missed of our purpose (157): ‘I missed my purpose’, Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour; ‘miss of’ (meaning ‘miss’) Greene, Selimus; Haughton, Englishmen for My Money; Lyly, Love’s Metamorphosis.

  • mixed with bitter gall (165): Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘bitter gall’, Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia; Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; Yarington uses ‘bitter gall’ twice, once prefaced by ‘mixed with’, as in Arden.

  • to shun suspicion (166): Marlowe, The Jew of Malta; Porter, Two Angry Women of Abingdon; Chettle and Munday, The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon.

  • to the gates of death to follow thee (167): ‘follow to the gates of death’, Peele, The Battle of Alcazar; ‘followed...to the gates of death’, Anon., The True Tragedy of Richard III; these are the only two of six references to ‘gates of death’ that also include the verb ‘to follow’.

Part B

Below are recorded phrases and collocations in Doctor Faustus, 18.99–118 and 19.132–90, that are found, through Literature Online searches, not more than five times in drama of the period 1580–1600.

  • Was this the face that launch’d a thousand ships|And burnt the topless towers of Ilium? (18.99–100): ‘Helen, whose beauty summoned Greece to arms, And drew a thousand ships to Tenedos’, Marlowe, 2 Tamburlaine; ‘I never vowed...The desolation of his native Troy, Nor sent a thousand ships unto the walls’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; these are the only instances of ‘a thousand ships’, and each, like Faustus’s, is about Helen and the siege of Troy; ‘Was this the face That’, Shakespeare, Richard II.

  • launch’d...ships (99): ‘all our ships were launched’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; ‘Why are thy ships...launched?’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido (p.233) Queen of Carthage; there are two non-Marlovian instances of the verb ‘launch’, but neither mentions ‘ships’, and one is not even nautical.

  • topless towers (100): ‘Towers that topless touch the clouds’, Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London.

  • make me immortal with a kiss (101): Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage.

  • Her lips suck forth my soul (102): ‘she...sucks my soul forth with a melting kiss’, Marston, Jack Drum’s Entertainment; ‘suck away their souls’, Shakespeare, Henry V; Marston’s is much the closer parallel, but these are the only two examples of souls being sucked.

  • I will be Paris, and for love of thee|Instead of Troy shall Wittenberg be sack’d (106–7): ‘So thou wouldst prove as true as Paris did, Would, as fair Troy was, Carthage might be sacked, And I be called a second Helena!’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; ‘poor Troy must now be sacked’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; there are no other instances of ‘be sacked’, and these refer to Troy, the first naming Paris, as does Faustus.

  • wear thy colours (109): ‘wear those colors’, Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV; ‘wear his colors’, Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost; where ‘colours’ means ‘ensign’.

  • plumed crest (109): Greene, Selimus; Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; ‘high-plumed crests’, Heywood, The Four Prentices of London.

  • Clad in the beauty of (113): Anon., The Tragedy of Caesar and Pompey.

  • More lovely than (116): Anon., The Taming of a Shrew.

  • azur’d arms (117): ‘azure arms’, Lyly, The Woman in the Moon.

  • none but thou shalt be my paramour (118): ‘None but thou Shall be his son-in-law’, Jonson, The Case is Altered; ‘none but thou’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda; ‘none but thou and I’ in Heywood’s Edward IV is discarded as different in meaning.

  • be my paramour (118): ‘be his paramour’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; ‘be thy paramour’, Shakespeare and others, 1 Henry VI; ‘be Rasnes’ paramour’, Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London.

  • but one bare hour (19.134): ‘but one hour’, Anon., Lust’s Dominion; Lyly, Love’s Metamorphosis; ‘one bare hour’, Haughton, Englishmen for My Money.

  • thou must be damn’d (135): ‘I must be damned’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; ‘Bacon must be damned’, Greene, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay; ‘Thou...must be damned’, Marlowe, The Jew of Marlowe.

  • Stand still, you ever-moving spheres of heaven, |That time may cease, and midnight never come|...That Faustus may repent (136–41): ‘Let never silent night possess this clime. Stand still, you watches of the element; All times and seasons rest you at a stay, That Edward may be still fair England’s king’, Marlowe, Edward II; there are no other examples of ‘Stand still you’, and the two passages have several other words and ideas in common.

  • spheres of heaven (136): ‘sphere of heaven’, Marlowe, Edward II; though heavenly spheres are often mentioned, this is the only instance of the exact phrase ‘sphere(s) of heaven’.

  • (p.234) Fair nature’s (138): Haughton, Englishmen for My Money.

  • Perpetual day (139): Heywood, The Four Prentices of London.

  • A year, a month, a week, a natural day (140): ‘but king for a year, nay but half a year, nay a month, a week, three days, one day, or half a day, nay an hour, ’swounds half an hour’, Anon., The True Tragedy of Richard III; this reads like burlesque.

  • The stars move still (143): ‘as the star moves not but in his sphere’, Shakespeare, Hamlet; ‘you stars, that move in your right spheres’, Shakespeare, King John; the only cases of stars said to move.

  • Faustus must be damn’d (144): ‘I must be damned’, The Troublesome Reign of King John; ‘Bacon must be damned’, Greene, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay; ‘Thou...must be damned’, Marlowe, The Jew of Malta.

  • leap up (145): ‘leaps up’, Dekker, Old Fortunatus; Jonson, Every Man in His Humour; the Dekker example is counted, though the leaping is figurative, but I have excluded Porter’s ‘leap up to the chin in a barrel of beer’ (Two Angry Women of Abingdon), where ‘up’ goes with ‘to the chin’ not with ‘leap’.

  • See, see where (146): Warner, Menaechmi.

  • Christ’s blood streams in the firmament (146): ‘set black streamers in the firmament’, Marlowe, 2 Tamburlaine; the only example of anything streaming in ‘the firmament’.

  • Christ’s blood (146): ‘the blood of Jesus Christ’, Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘Christ, Whose blood must save me’, Anon., Arden of Faversham.

  • Rend not my heart for naming of my Christ (148): ‘Rend not my heart’, Marlowe, Edward II; ‘I rent his name that rends my heart’, Marlowe, Edward II; there are several rendings of hearts, but even the second of these, with ‘rend(s) my heart’ and ‘name’, more closely matches Faustus’s utterance than any not listed here.

  • my Christ; | Yet will I call on him: (148–9): ‘call on Christ’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris.

  • O, spare me (149): Anon., Mucedorus; Marlowe, Edward II; ‘O, spare me not’ in Shakespeare’s Richard II is omitted from calculations.

  • God| Stretcheth out his arm (150–1): ‘stretch out our arms’, Anon., Captain Thomas Stukeley; ‘stretching out my arms’, Anon., Lust’s Dominion; ‘stretcheth out his...arms’, Marston, Antonio and Mellida; ‘If God should stretch his hand’, Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies.

  • God| ...bends his ireful brows (150–1): ‘ireful brows’, Anon., A Knack to Know an Honest Man; ‘God...whose...brow’, Munday and others, Sir Thomas More; the latter is the only mention of God’s brow(s).

  • come, come, and (152): Shakespeare and Peele, Titus Andronicus; Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV; Shakespeare, Hamlet.

  • the heavy wrath of God (153): Anon., A Warning for Fair Women; ‘I have provoked God to heavy wrath’, Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘heavy wrath’, Anon., Thomas Lord Cromwell.

  • wrath of God (153): Anon., A Knack to Know a Knave; Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London; Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine.

  • (p.235) headlong run (155): Greville, Alaham; ‘run headlong’, Greene, James IV; Marston, Antonio’s Revenge; Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies; ‘running headlong’, 1 Tamburlaine.

  • no, it will not (156): Anon., The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune.

  • You stars that reign’d at my nativity (157): ‘Smile, stars that reigned at my nativity’, Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine; ‘every star that reigned when I was born’, Anon., The Wars of Cyrus; ‘I hope more happy stars will reign today’, Haughton, Englishmen for My Money; ‘happy stars reigned at the disposition of her beauty’, Chapman, An Humorous Day’s Mirth; there are no other instances of stars reigning, but the Marlowe parallel is easily the best.

  • stars...|Whose influence (157–8): ‘the star whose influence’, Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris; the ‘influence’ of the stars is mentioned several times, but this is the only ‘whose influence’.

  • stars...hath allotted death (157–8): ‘allot me death’, Lyly, Love’s Metamorphosis; ‘this my stars to me allot’, Peele, The Arraignment of Paris; ‘the end that fate allotteth me’, Lodge, The Wounds of Civil War.

  • foggy mist (159): Anon., Arden of Faversham.

  • Into the entrails of yon labouring cloud (160): ‘in the bowels of a freezing cloud’, Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine; ‘Within the entrails of a jetty cloud’, Peele, David and Bethsabe.

  • vomit forth (161): ‘vomits forth’, Shakespeare, Richard III.

  • forth into the air (161): Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice.

  • So that my soul may but (163): ‘So that Aeneas may but’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; the only ‘So that...may but’.

  • ascend to heaven (163): Haughton, Grim the Collier; Shakespeare, King John; ‘ascend to fame’s immortal house’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; the idea of souls going to heaven is common, but these are the only instances of ‘ascend to’.

  • Yet for Christ’s sake, whose blood hath ransom’d me (167): ‘[God] did send his own dear son to pay his ransom with his precious blood’, Guy Earl of Warwick; ‘That this my blood mought thy life’s ransom be’, Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia; ‘No drop of blood falls from a Christian heart But thy heart’s blood shall ransom’, Heywood, The Four Prentices of London; ‘Christ, Whose blood must save me’, Anon., Arden of Faversham.

  • for Christ’s sake (167): Anon., Arden of Faversham; Heywood, Edward IV; Yarington, Two Lamentable Tragedies.

  • Impose some end (168): ‘impose a final end’, Brandon, The Virtuous Octavia.

  • incessant pain (168): ‘incessant torments’, Anon., Locrine.

  • live in hell a thousand years (169): ‘in darkness hurled A thousand years, as Satan was’, Jonson, Every Man in His Humour; ‘a lease of my life for a thousand years’, Shakespeare and others, 2 Henry VI; ‘live a thousand years’, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet; ‘a thousand years’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda; ‘thousand years’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage.

  • (p.236) and at last (170): Anon., Arden of Faversham; Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London; Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris.

  • Why wert thou (172): Kyd, Soliman and Perseda.

  • Ah, Pythagoras’ metempsychosis, were that true, |This soul should fly from me and I be chang’d|Unto some brutish beast (174–6): ‘O you departed souls, If Pythagorian axioms be true Of spirits’ transmigration, fleet no more To human bodies, rather live in swine, Inhabit wolves’ flesh, scorpions, dogs, and toads’, Marston, Antonio’s Revenge.

  • brutish beast (176): ‘brutish beasts’, Anon., Mucedorus; Shakespeare, Julius Caesar; ‘brutish savage beasts’, Greene, Alphonsus, King of Aragon; ‘brutish animal’, Anon., Every Woman in Her Humour.

  • when they die|Their souls are soon dissolv’d in elements (177–8): ‘Until our bodies turn to elements’, Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine; the only mention of anything changing into elements.

  • Be plagu’d (179): Greene, Orlando Furioso; Jonson, Every Man out of His Humour; Lyly, Sapho and Phao.

  • Curs’d be the parents that engender’d me! (180): ‘cursed be the time Of thy nativity’, Shakespeare, 1 Henry VI; ‘Cursed be my birthday’, Anon., The Troublesome Reign of King John; ‘Cursed be the day wherein I was born, and accursed be the hour when I was begotten’, Anon., The Famous Victories of Henry V.

  • the parents that engender’d me (180): ‘the mother that engend’red thee’, Shakespeare, Julius Caesar; ‘engendered me’, Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris.

  • little water drops...into the ocean (185–6): ‘in the sea...little water drops’, Marlowe and Nashe, Dido Queen of Carthage; ‘water-drops’, Shakespeare, Richard II; Peele, The Arraignment of Paris.

  • Look not so fierce on me! (187): ‘looks so fierce’, Marlowe, 1 Tamburlaine; ‘fierce looks’, Shakespeare, King John.

  • Adders and serpents (188): Peele, The Battle of Alcazar.

  • Ugly hell, gape not! (189): ‘Hell gapes for me’, Greene and Lodge, A Looking Glass for London; ‘hell gapes’, Kyd, Soliman and Perseda; ‘gape hollow hell’, Anon., The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune; ‘though hell itself should gape’, Shakespeare, Hamlet.

Notes:

(1) . Compare ‘her troubled brain’ and ‘the brain being troubled’ in Venus and Adonis, 1040 and 1068. Rare phrases and collocations that the Quarrel Scene shares with Shakespeare’s narrative poems or sonnets are relegated to notes, because they have not been collected through systematic searches of poetry written within a predetermined period, in the manner employed for plays.

(2) . Compare also ‘troubled minds that wakes’ in The Rape of Lucrece, 126; ‘that wakes’ connects with the ‘watchfulness’ of line 2 of Mosby’s soliloquy.

(3) . The phrase ‘golden time’ also occurs in Sonnets, 3.12, and Twelfth Night, 5.1.382.

(4) . ‘Gentlest airy’ is an emendation of Q’s ‘gentle stary’, which Wine interprets as ‘gentle starry’. Craik rightly regards ‘gentlest airy’ as much more likely to be what the playwright intended. The inventory of parallels is not affected by acceptance of Craik’s reading rather than Wine’s.

(5) . Compare ‘ear so barren a land’ in Shakespeare’s dedication to Venus and Adonis; ‘He that ears my land’ in All’s Well That Ends Well (1.3.44); ‘O then we bring forth weeds

...and our ills told us|Is as our earing’, Antony and Cleopatra (1.2.109–11); and ‘ear’ again meaning ‘plough’ in Antony and Cleopatra, 1.4.49.

(6) . Wine retains Q’s ‘heave’ (‘heaue’), but Craik’s adoption of Delius’s ‘hive’ is strongly supported by the parallel with 2 Henry IV. This is so regardless of the authorship of the Quarrel Scene. Failure to emend would eliminate only the Locrine link. In the 2 Henry IV lines, metre suggests that ‘pack’d’ has been misplaced, and should follow ‘honey’.

(7) . Q Fedele and Fortunio accidentally transposes ‘dogs’ and ‘bone’. Mosby’s image of causing dogs to fight over a bone recurs in Arden of Faversham, when Greene intervenes to stop Black Will and Shakebag squabbling: ‘I pray you, sirs, list to Aesop’s talk:|Whilst two stout dogs were striving for a bone, |There comes a cur and stole it from them both’ (9.30–2). The sole allusion to Aesop within the recognized Shakespeare canon associates him with fables about curs: ‘Let Aesop fable in a winter’s night, |His currish riddles sorts not with this place’ (3 Henry VI, 5.5.25–6).

(8) . Compare also ‘Who sees the lurking serpent steps aside;|But she sound sleeping, fearing no such thing, |Lies at the mercy of his mortal sting’ (The Rape of Lucrece, 362–4).

(9) . The passage cited from Titus Andronicus seems to me to confirm Craik’s emendation of Q’s ‘part’ to ‘heart’ (which would have been spelt ‘hart’). The inventory of links is not affected by the change. Compare the very close parallel to Mosby’s lines in Venus and Adonis: ‘An oven that is stopp’d...|Burneth more hotly...|So of concealed sorrow may be said, |Free vent of words love’s fire doth assuage’ (331–4).

(10) . Also ‘discharged cannon’ and ‘ruinate...buildings’, The Rape of Lucrece, 1043, 944.

(11) . The image, which has eyes feigning oaths, is confused, and whereas in Kyd ‘forge’ simply means ‘simulate’, in the Arden of Faversham passage it retains a hint of a blacksmith’s weapon-making, and so interacts with the verb ‘wound’ to vivify the metaphor. The two passages are more fully analysed in Chapter 4, Section II.

(12) . The closest parallel to Mosby’s ‘looks to wound a breast|Where lies a heart’ is ‘never wound the heart with looks again’ in Venus and Adonis, 1042.

(13) . For similar repetition and play on ‘love’ see ‘My love to love is love but to disgrace it’, Venus and Adonis, 412. With the second citation from The Two Gentlemen of Verona compare the quibbling rhetoric of Arden of Faversham, 10.86–90, in which ‘love’ occurs five times, ‘leave’ twice, and ‘live’ or ‘life’ five times.

(14) . Alice’s declaration that she changed to again being ‘honest Arden’s wife, not Arden’s honest wife.|Ha, Mosby, ’tis thou hast rifled me of that’ is closely paralleled in The Rape of Lucrece: ‘I was a loyal wife:|So am I now—O no, that cannot be, |Of that true type hath Tarquin rifled me’ (1048–50); also ‘Pure Chastity is rifled of her store’ (692); no other author of the period uses ‘rifled’ in connection with theft of a woman’s status as chaste wife.

(15) . The combination ‘sland’rous...to’ also occurs in The Rape of Lucrece, 1001. The adjective is a favourite with Shakespeare, occurring a dozen times in his works; but to the instances in King John and Lucrece may be added only one more (in Julius Caesar, 4.1.20) where the meaning, as in Arden, is ‘disgraceful’ (rather than ‘calumnious’).

(16) . Omitted from this record is ‘that forehead...|Where should be graven...The slaughter of the prince’ in Richard III, 4.4.140–2, because ‘graven’ is the Q reading, where F, followed by Evans and most other modern editors, has ‘branded’. However, John Jowett accepts Q as his control text and so reads ‘graven’ in The Tragedy of King Richard III, ed. John Jowett (Oxford: OUP, 2000). Compare also ‘my digression is so vile, so base|That it will live engraven in my face’, The Rape of Lucrece, 202–3 (of sexual sin, as in Arden). Passages in which faults are ‘written’ or ‘branded’ in the forehead or brow are fairly common in plays of 1580–1600, but use of the verb ‘(en)grave’ in such contexts is not.

(17) . I have excluded ‘These ravens will seize upon thy dove’ (Chettle and Munday, The Death of Robert Earl of Huntingdon), from which the idea of a wolf in sheep’s clothing, to shift the figure from birds to animals, is absent. Just outside the 1580–1600 limits is ‘a raven’s heart within a dove’, Twelfth Night, 5.1.131.

(18) . Compare ‘some with cunning gild their copper crowns’, Troilus and Cressida, 4.4.105, where again the image is applied to a woman’s faithfulness.

(19) . I have excluded ‘It is too good to be true’ (Lyly, Mother Bombie), where the meaning is different.

(20) . The only other instance in plays of 1580–1600 of ‘tear away’ is in ‘Ah, do not tear away thyself from me’, The Comedy of Errors, 2.2.124; but this has been omitted as not involving literal tearing.

(21) . By far the closest parallel to ‘heard as quickly as the fearful hare’ is found within an extended description of the hunted hare in Venus and Adonis: ‘the timorous flying hare...poor Wat, far off upon a hill, |Stands on his hinder-legs with list’ning ear, |To hearken if his foes pursue him still’ (674–99), where the hare’s fearfulness sharpens its hearing.

(22) . The muddied fountain image-complex is discussed in Chapter 1, Section V. Here Wine adopts the emendation ‘fount once’ for Q’s ‘fence of’. Further Shakespeare parallels include three in The Rape of Lucrece: ‘Mud not the fountain that gave drink to thee’ (577), ‘toads infect fair founts with venom mud’ (850), and ‘The poisoned fountain clears itself again’ (1707).

(23) . Compare Hamlet’s ‘unweeded garden’ (1.2.135). Alice’s ‘Flowers do sometimes spring in fallow lands, |Weeds in gardens’ (142–3) implies that fallow lands normally grow weeds, as in Henry V: France’s ‘fallow leas|The darnel, hemlock, and rank femetary|Doth root upon’ (5.2.44–6). The Rape of Lucrece offers: ‘Unwholesome weeds take root with precious flow’rs’ (870).

(24) . See also ‘Roses have thorns, and silver fountains mud’, Sonnets, 35.2, where the speaker, like Alice Arden, is trying to excuse a lover, and the second half of the line, about muddied fountains, links with Arden, 8.132. Venus and Adonis has ‘though the rose have prickles’ (574), and The Rape of Lucrece has ‘I know what thorns the growing rose defends’ (492).

(25) . A stanza in Venus and Adonis is also close to the Arden line: ‘Pure lips, sweet seals in my soft lips imprinted, |What bargains may I make, still to be sealing?’ Venus asks of Adonis, continuing with an analogy of buying and selling that leads into ‘Which purchase if thou make...|Set thy seal manual on my wax-red lips’ (511–16). Here again a contract is made with the lips; compare ‘And seal the bargain with a holy kiss’, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, 2.2.7, and ‘And seal the title with a lovely kiss’, The Taming of the Shrew, 3.2.123.