This chapter describes the formation, development, and major subjects of nonlinear optics and photonics. The semiclassical theory treats the light as a classical electromagnetic field governed by Maxwell equations, while the optical medium is a molecular system governed by quantum mechanics; the key parameters for this theory are various-order nonlinear susceptibilities. The quantum theory of radiation treats light as an ensemble of photons and the medium as a molecular system, both of which are described by quantum mechanics, and the key aspect is the concept of the so-called intermediate state represented by a virtual energy state level. The semiclassical theory gives a concise quantitative description of various nonlinear multi-wave mixing effects as well as those nonlinear processes related to the induced refractive-index changes. In contrast, the quantum theory of radiation can provide a conceptual interpretation for almost all known nonlinear optical effects and phenomena.
Keywords: Nonlinear optics, photonics, semiclassical theory, quantum theory of radiation, intermediate state, virtual energy level, nonlinear susceptibility, multi-wave mixing, refractive-index change
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