- Title Pages
- To my daughter Anna, who helped me through Boltzmann’s dense German
- FOREWORD
- PREFACE
- FIGURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
- Introduction
- 1 A short biography of Ludwig Boltzmann
- 2 Physics before Boltzmann
- 3 Kinetic theory before Boltzmann
- 4 The Boltzmann equation
- 5 Time irreversibility and the H-theorem
- 6 Boltzmann’s relation and the statistical interpretation of entropy
- 7 Boltzmann, Gibbs, and equilibrium statistical mechanics
- 8 The problem of polyatomic molecules
- 9 Boltzmann’s contributions to other branches of physics
- 10 Boltzmann as a philosopher
- 11 Boltzmann and his contemporaries
- 12 The influence of Boltzmann’s ideas on the science and technology of the twentieth century
- EPILOGUE
- CHRONOLOGY
- “A German professor’s journey into Eldorado”*
- Appendix 3.1 Calculation of pressure in a rarefied gas
- Appendix 4.1 The Liouville equation
- Appendix 4.2 Calculation of the effect of collisions of one particle with another
- Appendix 4.3 The BBGKY hierarchy
- Appendix 4.4 The Boltzmann hierarchy and its relation to the Boltzmann equation
- Appendix 4.5 The Boltzmann equation in the homogeneous isotropic case
- Appendix 5.1 Collision-invariants
- Appendix 5.2 Boltzmann’s inequality and the Maxwellian distribution
- Appendix 5.3 The H-theorem
- Appendix 5.4 The hourglass model
- Appendix 6.1 Likelihood of a distribution
- Appendix 7.1 The canonical distribution for equilibrium states
- Appendix 8.1 The H-theorem for classical polyatomic molecules
- Appendix 8.2 The equipartition problem
- Appendix 9.1 The Stefan–Boltzmann law
- Appendix 9.2 Wien’s law
- Chapter 1
- Chapter 2
- Chapter 3
- Chapter 4
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
- Chapter 7
- Chapter 8
- Chapter 9
- Chapter 10
- Chapter 11
- Chapter 12
- Epilogue
- Index
Physics before Boltzmann
Physics before Boltzmann
- Chapter:
- (p.50) 2 Physics before Boltzmann
- Source:
- Ludwig Boltzmann
- Author(s):
CARLO CERCIGNANI
- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
This chapter looks at the state of physics when Ludwig Boltzmann began to contribute to its development, from Galileo and Isaac Newton, to the early atomic theories. Physics was in a phase characterized by two conflicting aspects: on the one hand, nobody had doubts about the basic structure erected by Newton after the sagacious innovation in both concepts and methods proposed by Galileo; on the other hand, the discoveries in the new areas of thermodynamics and electromagnetism were slowly transforming the imposing edifice in such a way that its inherent contradictions were sooner or later bound to come to light. This chapter cites the basic contributions of Alessandro Volta, Hans Christian Oersted, and Michael Faraday, along with the first connections between heat and mechanical energy, electricity, and magnetism.
Keywords: magnetism, Galileo, Isaac Newton, electromagnetism, atomic theories, electricity, thermodynamics, mechanical energy, heat
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- Title Pages
- To my daughter Anna, who helped me through Boltzmann’s dense German
- FOREWORD
- PREFACE
- FIGURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
- Introduction
- 1 A short biography of Ludwig Boltzmann
- 2 Physics before Boltzmann
- 3 Kinetic theory before Boltzmann
- 4 The Boltzmann equation
- 5 Time irreversibility and the H-theorem
- 6 Boltzmann’s relation and the statistical interpretation of entropy
- 7 Boltzmann, Gibbs, and equilibrium statistical mechanics
- 8 The problem of polyatomic molecules
- 9 Boltzmann’s contributions to other branches of physics
- 10 Boltzmann as a philosopher
- 11 Boltzmann and his contemporaries
- 12 The influence of Boltzmann’s ideas on the science and technology of the twentieth century
- EPILOGUE
- CHRONOLOGY
- “A German professor’s journey into Eldorado”*
- Appendix 3.1 Calculation of pressure in a rarefied gas
- Appendix 4.1 The Liouville equation
- Appendix 4.2 Calculation of the effect of collisions of one particle with another
- Appendix 4.3 The BBGKY hierarchy
- Appendix 4.4 The Boltzmann hierarchy and its relation to the Boltzmann equation
- Appendix 4.5 The Boltzmann equation in the homogeneous isotropic case
- Appendix 5.1 Collision-invariants
- Appendix 5.2 Boltzmann’s inequality and the Maxwellian distribution
- Appendix 5.3 The H-theorem
- Appendix 5.4 The hourglass model
- Appendix 6.1 Likelihood of a distribution
- Appendix 7.1 The canonical distribution for equilibrium states
- Appendix 8.1 The H-theorem for classical polyatomic molecules
- Appendix 8.2 The equipartition problem
- Appendix 9.1 The Stefan–Boltzmann law
- Appendix 9.2 Wien’s law
- Chapter 1
- Chapter 2
- Chapter 3
- Chapter 4
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
- Chapter 7
- Chapter 8
- Chapter 9
- Chapter 10
- Chapter 11
- Chapter 12
- Epilogue
- Index