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Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians$
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Stanley S. Hillman, Philip C. Withers, Robert C. Drewes, and Stanley D. Hillyard

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780198570325

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570325.001.0001

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Physiological Adaptations to Extreme Environments

Physiological Adaptations to Extreme Environments

(p.281) 4 Physiological Adaptations to Extreme Environments
Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians

Stanley S. Hillman

Philip C. Withers

Robert C. Drewes

Stanley D. Hillyard

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores what is known about how amphibians deal with extreme environmental situations, beginning with aquatic environments, both fresh water and marine. It then describes life in extreme terrestrial and underground environments. The next section deals with overwintering in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, and discusses the particular stresses of hypoxia and low temperature. The chapter concludes with a discussion of metabolic depression as an intrinsic metabolic mechanism that extends energy reserves when environmental conditions preclude activity.

Keywords:   extreme environmental situations, aquatic environments, fresh water, sea water, terrestrial, soil, arid, hibernation, hypoxia tolerance, freeze tolerance

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