Pain in Heart Failure Patients
This chapter examines the complex issues of pain and pain management in persons with heart failure (HF). Limited literature provides evidence in this area; thus, the content presented in this chapter also includes appropriate general pain management principles, pharmacology, and clinical experience. It begins by presenting a general review of pain concepts. It then reviews the evidence for the existence of pain in persons with HF and describes the assessment and treatment of pain, with a focus on persons with HF. Finally, it suggests areas for future research.
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