Diversification occurs readily in asexual populations, but is obstructed by recombination in outcrossed sexual organisms. Species may arise because sexual isolation permits diversification, or because sexual isolation follows diversification; this chapter takes the former view. The first section in this final chapter is called Speciation and diversification and it details allopatric and sympatric divergence; asexual diversification; the poverty of the protists; and speciation in macrobes. The second section is called Experimental speciation and is about sexual divergence by drift; disruptive natural selection; the evolution of isolating mechanisms; divergent natural selection in complete isolation; reinforcement; artificial selection for sexual isolation; sexual divergence; and offers a new species of yeast. The final section entitled Emerging species is all about sticklebacks; whitefish; and sedges.
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