OBSERVATION OF MICROSCOPIC MAGNETISM
This chapter is devoted to the observation of microscopic magnetism, working out in some detail the most commonly used magnetic techniques. The basic aspects of these techniques are only briefly recalled, and indication is given of relevant text books which will give a sound background knowledge. However, it is the goal of the chapter to allow the reader to be able to read the current literature with some acceptable understanding. The magnetic techniques include microSQUID and micro Hall probe techniques and torque magnetometry; specific heat measurements, including equilibrium and out of equilibrium measurements; and magnetic resonance techniques, including EPR, NMR, and muon spin resonance. Mention of neutron techniques, including polarized neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering, will conclude the section.
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