Molecular clock and estimation of species divergence times
This chapter focuses on statistical methods for testing the clock hypothesis, and on likelihood and Bayesian methods for dating species divergence events under global and local clock models. In such an analysis, fossils are used to calibrate the clock, that is, to translate sequence distances into absolute geological times and substitution rates. A similar situation concerns viral genes, which evolve so fast that changes are observed over the years. Then one can use the dates at which the sequences are determined to calibrate the clock and to estimate divergence times, using essentially the same techniques as discussed here.
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