This chapter describes the simplest possible model for a finite population: the homogeneous population model. It is appropriate when there is no auxiliary information that can distinguish between different population units. The homogeneous population model assumes equal expected value and variance for the variable of interest for all population units. Values from different units are assumed to be independent although this is relaxed in the last section of the chapter. The empirical best and best linear unbiased predictor of a population total are derived under the model. Inference, sample design and sample size calculation are also discussed. The most appropriate design for this kind of population is usually simple random sampling without replacement. The urn model (also known as the hypergeometric model), a special case of the homogeneous population model, is also discussed.
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