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The Invisible Smile
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The Invisible Smile: Living without facial expression

Jonathan Cole and Henrietta Spalding


We are defined by our faces. They give identity but, equally importantly, reveal our moods and emotions through facial expression. So what happens when the face cannot move? This book is about people who live with Möbius Syndrome, which has as its main feature an absence of movement of the muscles of facial expression from birth. People with Möbius cannot smile, frown, or look surprised or sad. Talking and eating are problematic, since their lips do not move. Even looking around is also difficult since the eyes cannot move either. The book gives those with Möbius a voice, allowing children and ... More

Keywords: faces, identity, moods, emotions, facial expression, Möbius Syndrome, emotional expression, emotional experience, learning difficulties, autism

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2008 Print ISBN-13: 9780198566397
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566397.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Jonathan Cole, author
Consultant in Clinical Neurophysiology, Poole Hospital, Visiting Professor at CoPMRE, University of Bournemouth and Visiting Senior Lecturer, Clinical Neurosciences, University of Southampton, UK

Henrietta Spalding, author
Head of Professional Development at 'Changing Faces', London, UK