Pattern and process in food webs: evidence from running waters
Studies on streams provide some of the most detailed and best resolved webs yet available, and provide a means to test food web theory. These systems can be used to test patterns in connectance webs and the effect of sampling on the patterns evident. The role of body-size in stream webs is reviewed. This chapter deals with attempts to quantify food webs by measures of energy flow and interaction strengths, and to characterize the circumstances leading to the presence or absence of trophic cascades in food webs. Streams are strongly linked through their food webs with surrounding systems, such as ground water and flood plains, and such cross-system subsidies is considered. The effect of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on food web attributes is addressed. Finally, the relationship between biodiversity/ecosystem functions in stream webs is addressed in the context of environmental stress.
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