This chapter assembles four examples taken from different historical periods of children's experience of learning music in formal educational settings in the west. They include: the English medieval song schools, instrumental instruction in 18th-century Britain, school music teaching in late 19th-century Europe, and recapitulation and musical childhoods in the 20th century. The first three of these are selected in order to illustrate children's musical experiences in the formal educational settings of churches, studios, and schools, respectively, while the fourth charts the progress of an influential theory dealing with the evolutionary development of music, and the evolutionary stages of childhood.
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