The most recent definition of dyspnoea refers to the symptom as a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that involves qualitatively distinct sensations which vary in intensity. This recent definition asserts that dyspnoea is influenced by social and physiological factors resulting in physiological and behavioural responses. This new definition also acknowledges the methods and strategies that modulate the symptom beyond the physiological domain. It supports methods that target the cognitive, emotional, sensory, and behavioural dimensions of dyspnoea. This chapter discusses the non-pharmacological strategies of addressing dyspnoea. To understand the other dimensions of dyspnoea, it begins with the symptom-perception models of dyspnoea, its affective dimension, and the cognitive-behavioural perspective behind the symptom. The strategies discussed include: physiological, cognitive-behavioural, distraction, and attention strategies. The chapter also considers the different non-pharmacological strategies that may be adapted in the different phases of the patient's illness.
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