A short history of temperature compensation
This chapter covers the temperature compensation of pendulum clocks. Temperature compensators can be divided into four groups: mercury for medium expansion pendulum rods (iron), gridiron for medium expansion pendulum rods (iron), sleeve for low expansion pendulum rods (invar, quartz), and miscellaneous low accuracy schemes (bimetal, length of the suspension spring, barometer on pendulum, and gears and levers). The story starts in the early 1700s, when people noticed that different metals expanded at different rates. Several clockrnakers independently measured the relative thermal expansions of different metals, with each using his own arbitrary scale of expansion.
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