Critical appraisal of a matched case–control study
This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a small matched case-control study entitled ‘Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of conjugated estrogens’, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1975. The study is the first publication showing an important relationship between a disease and a widely used drug. It was chosen because it is now of historical importance, and is a good example of an individually matched study with several issues of interpretation. In addition, it shows an interesting way of assessing confounding, which is valid although not usually used in current studies.
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