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Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials$
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Mark Elwood

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198529552

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.001.0001

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The results obtained from studies of causation

Chapter:
(p.53) Chapter 3 The results obtained from studies of causation
Source:
Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials
Author(s):

J. Mark Elwood

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.03

The previous chapter presented a classification of study design which separated the criteria used to select the groups of individuals to be compared from the time relationships of the study. The logic of this system will appear clear in this chapter, which discusses the results obtained from these studies. The format of the results and therefore the appropriate methods of interpreting them depend on the groups being compared. The extent to which particular problems and biases occur depends largely on the time relationships. Self-test questions are provided at the end of the chapter.

Keywords:   study designs, cohort studies, intervention studies, surveys, cause and effect, bias

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