This chapter leads off with explanations of basic electronic noise mechanisms with simple derivations of spectral noise densities for thermal and shot noise, including the origins and characteristics of ‘1/f’ noise. This is then applied to noise in single and multi-stage amplifiers. Noise matching with both resistive and capacitive signal sources is explained together with the limits of its applicability. The noise characteristics of charge-sensitive feedback amplifiers are derived and explained. Sensor noise models for multi-electrode structures are discussed and noise cross-coupling between multiple amplifiers is analyzed and also applied to backside readout. The chapter closes with a brief description of quantum noise limits in amplifiers.
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