This chapter starts with a discussion of the symmetry conditions which have to be imposed on the wave function of a many-particle system, and the distinction between bosons and fermions. It then examines the consequences of these conditions for simple systems of non-interacting particles (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics), and in particular, introduces the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a noninteracting Bose gas. The phenomenon of Cooper pairing of interacting fermions is introduced by a thought-experiment in which one starts from a BEC of tightly bound diatomic molecules made of fermion atoms and gradually weakens the binding. The chapter closes with a description of the various physical systems to be treated in the book, and an account of the phenomenology of superfluidity and superconductivity. An appendix treats the statistical mechanics of a rotating system.
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