Electrophysiology of CTA
Gustatory CS is analyzed by taste cells, the output fibers of which form chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal nerve (GN) to area postrema (AP). The labelled line (LL) and across nerve pattern (ANP) or across region pattern (ARP) theories assume that the unpleasant taste corresponds to the sum of discharging neurons or to the IC surface activated by c-fos marking. This information is transmitted by vagus nerve and by C fibers of the splanchnic nerve to area postrema. CTA changes the CS to a quinine-like bitter taste usually projected to external lateral subnucleus of PBN. This changes the hedonic values of the CS from attractive to aversive. The increase reflects the change of taste quality in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and hedonic change in the central amygdala (CeA). Lesions of BLA disrupt CTA by interruption of BLA projections to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH).
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