Many events can alter the neurotransmitter phenotype of central nervous system (CNS) neurones. For instance, most neurones down-regulate their neurotransmitters and the enzymes that make them after axotomy or other forms of damage. Neurotrophins tend to cause neurons to upregulate their neurotransmitter phenotype or even change it, and neurotrophins often prevent the downregulation of neurotransmitter phenotype after damage. There are so many examples of these types of behaviour that it would not be sensible in this book to try and detail them all. However, there are two particular experimental models in which neuroplasticity of this type has been analysed in detail, and this chapter describes them.
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