- Title Pages
- Part I The hand
- 1 Primate hands and the human hand: the tool of tools
- 2 The hand and the tool: the functional architecture of human technical skills
- 3 Control of the monkey's hand by the motor cortex
- 4 Human prehension and its prosthetic substitution
- 5 Some one- and two-handed functions and processes in tool use by pongids
- Part II Manipulation of the object: analyses and experiments
- 6 Cognitive competence underlying tool use in free-ranging orang-utans
- 7 Tool use in a South American monkey species: an overview of the characteristics and limits of tool use in Cebus apella
- Part III Influence of the natural habitat and variability in tool use: the notion of culture
- 8 Brains, hands, and minds: puzzling incongruities in ape tool use
- 9 Diversity of tool use and tool-making in wild chimpanzees
- 10 Local variation of tools and tool use among wild chimpanzee populations
- Part IV Origin and ontogeny
- 11 The earliest stone tools: their implications for an understanding of the activities and behaviour of late Pliocene hominids
- 12 Are we able to determine the function of the earliest palaeolithic tools?
- 13 The origin of secondary tools
- Part V Evolution in social space and collection strategies in human hunter—gatherer societies
- 14 The origin of tool use and the evolution of social space in palaeolithic times: some reflections
- 15 Ecological determinism, group strategies, and individual decisions in the conception of prehistoric stone assemblages
- 16 Tools and hunter—gatherers
- Part VI Expertise and apprenticeship
- Introduction to Chapters 17 and 18
- 17 A framework for analysing prehistoric stone tool manufacture and a tentative application to some early stone industries
- 18 Some socio-economic aspects of the knapping process among groups of hunter—gatherers in the Paris Basin area
- 19 The transfer of knowledge within the craft industries and trade guilds
- Part VII Technological systems and ritualization
- 20 From polished stone tool to sacred axe: the axes of the Danis of Irian Jaya, Indonesia
- 21 How can we analyse and describe technical actions?
- Author index
- Subject index
The origin of secondary tools
The origin of secondary tools
- (p.239) 13 The origin of secondary tools
- The Use of Tools by Human and Non-human Primates
- Oxford University Press
Tool-using and tool-making were long thought to be s behaviour characteristic of humans. However, many primate species are now known to use objects as tools. Chimpanzees, in particular, have been observed in the wild to use a number of different objects for a variety of purposes and even to prepare them in advance, thereby demonstrating cognitive capabilities. This chapter addresses two questions: First, what were the cognitive capacities called for by secondary tool use, capacities insufficiently developed in chimpanzees but which rendered stone tool manufacture possible for early hominids? Second, how can a scenario be conceived for the development of secondary tool use among the ancestors of Homo habilisl?
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