Stages of memory formation in the chick: findings and problems
This chapter presents evidence for multiple stages in memory formation in the chick, state dependency as an alternative to amnesic effects, participation of different regions of the chick brain in stages of memory formation, effects of opioid agonists and antagonists on learning and memory in the chick, and problems encountered in research with chicks. Biochemical stages in formation of memory, they may not coincide with separate behavioural stages of memory. State-dependent learning (SDL) for some drugs is well documented in both humans and animals. Experiments have been conducted to test which drugs cause SDL in chicks. Exploration is continuing at brain sites. Problems encountered in research with chicks are: different results yielded by variety of methods and protocols, different behavioural characteristics of chicks used in different laboratories, and problems with retention of material injected transcranially into the chick.
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