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Physics of Ice$
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Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780198518945

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.001.0001

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The other phases of ice

The other phases of ice

(p.252) 11 The other phases of ice
Physics of Ice

Victor F. Petrenko

Robert W. Whitworth

Oxford University Press

The water substance exhibits at least 13 crystalline phases. These are denoted by roman numerals such as ice II. Many are stable in particular regions of the pressure — temperature phase diagram though some are only metastable. This chapter tabulates the crystal structures and regions of stability of these high-pressure phases. Some phases are proton-ordered forms of others; for example, suitably doped ice Ih orders to ice XI below 72 K. All are formed from distinct water molecules except ice X, which is produced at high pressures above 60 GPa. Ice Ic is the metastable cubic form of ice Ih. Low- and high-density amorphous ices can be produced at low temperatures. All revert via ice Ic to normal ice on warming above about 150 K. The clathrate hydrates are a group of crystalline ice-like compounds in which suitable guest molecules are incorporated in cages of water molecules within the lattice.

Keywords:   ice, phase diagram, high-pressure phases, crystal structures, proton order, ice XI, ice X, ice Ic, amorphous ices, clathrate hydrates

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