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Physics of Ice$
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Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780198518945

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.001.0001

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The surface of ice

The surface of ice

(p.227) 10 The surface of ice
Physics of Ice

Victor F. Petrenko

Robert W. Whitworth

Oxford University Press

Especially at temperatures approaching the melting point, the surface of ice has properties significantly different from the bulk, and the surface is sometimes referred to as having a ‘liquid-like layer’. This chapter reviews many experiments to study this surface layer including scanning tunnelling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, optical ellipsometry, surface conductivity, surface potentials, nuclear magnetic resonance, and scanning force microscopy. Different experiments reveal unusual features to different depths and at different temperatures. Attempts at interpretation involve both thermodynamics and molecular modelling. The surface energy and the angle of contact with the liquid have been determined and are relevant to adhesion.

Keywords:   ice, surface, liquid-like layer, scanning tunnelling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, ellipsometry, surface conductivity, scanning force microscopy, surface energy

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