Social behaviour and relationships
The grooming, sexual behaviour, and relationships of chimpanzees are described. Both sexes are promiscuous. Female chimpanzees display sexual swellings when in receptive condition and males compete to mate with them, especially at the time of ovulation. Reproductive success is analyzed quantitatively and it is shown that the two alpha males for whom data are available achieved greater success than any of the other males, who nevertheless, in some cases, did sire offspring. Those males who compete for high status may form alliances to out-manoeuvre opponents. Vocal communication has become highly sophisticated and pant-hooting in choruses is a striking example of long-distance calling. When associating together, facial expressions and gestures, and a range of vocalizations about which we as yet know little, express intentions, status, and information about food abundance.
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